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Video: Growing And Varieties Of Tree Peonies
Shrub Chinese peonies grow in the Northwest
Tree peonies are native to China. There they have been cultivated since very ancient times for their beautiful flowers. This is a shrub with strong, lignified, straight or branched shoots up to 2-3 cm thick.
Beautiful large, light green, repeatedly dissected, openwork leaves differ in shape and color. They fall for the winter. In the spring, new leaf and flower buds appear on the preserved branches.
Semi-double and double fragrant large flowers up to 18-25 cm in diameter with a large number of stamens. For the most part, the flowers are white, pink, pale lilac, lilac, less often red and yellow with various shades. They often have a large dark velvety spot at the base of the petals. Stamens are large, bright yellow.
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Treelike peonies bloom in May, two weeks earlier than herbaceous peonies. Flowers develop on the central shoots and gradually appear on the lateral ones. They are spread out and lie on the apical leaves. The buds of tree-like peonies are similar to rosebuds. Abundant flowering. One bush can simultaneously have up to 100 blossoming flowers and almost the same number of buds. The preservation of one flower on a bush is up to 10 days, and the duration of flowering of a bush is up to three weeks.
The flowering of tree peonies coincides with the flowering of lilacs. After its completion, the bush does not lose its decorative effect and creates a wonderful background for other flowers. As with most flowers in hot, dry summers, flowering is faster. Tree peonies, in comparison with herbaceous ones, are more demanding on growing conditions: a place for them is chosen sunny or with a light shade. In shady places, they bloom poorly, stretch, reduce decorativeness or do not bloom at all.
Planting tree peonies
They are planted in the same pits that are prepared for grassy peonies, but they are slightly larger in size - 60x60x60 cm and more. The distance between the bushes should be at least 1.5 m.
It allows the root system to develop more freely, and the bushes will not shade each other. Treelike peonies prefer lighter sandy loam or light loamy soils. On the latter, peonies bloom longer. They have a large mass of suction roots located close to the soil surface.
In this regard, the trunk circles must be mulched: in spring and summer from bright sunlight so that the earth does not dry out, in autumn and winter - so that the roots do not freeze. You can plant ground cover plants nearby that have a shallow root system. They will not let the soil dry out near the trunk circle. The soil should be well fertilized, loose, water-permeable, neutral or slightly alkaline.
When preparing it, it is necessary to add compost, leaf humus. After planting, further care of the plants is common, like for herbaceous peonies - weeding, loosening, root and foliar feeding, regular watering. The ground should be constantly slightly damp. In spring, feeding is done when buds appear. The plant responds well to feeding with organic fertilizers, you can add a complex mineral fertilizer with a predominance of phosphorus and potassium, preferably in liquid form.
Then you need to feed during flowering with the same fertilizers or slurry solution or green fertilizer. In autumn, the base of the bush is covered with compost or rotted manure (one bucket per bush) or just earth. Next spring, this mulch must be raked off and embedded in the soil at a distance of 0.5 m from the neck of the bush.
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Shelter for the winter
To prepare the plant for winter and ripen their wood in August, watering is stopped. Dead branches are cut off at the beginning of the awakening of the buds with the obligatory putty of the cuts with garden pitch.
Tree peonies are winter-hardy, but they cannot stand strong snowless frosts, and they are not rare in the Leningrad region. Therefore, young bushes should be covered. In late autumn, they need to be pulled together with twine, covered with a box without a bottom to the size of a bush, or a box should be made of boards. Then it was loose to cover the bush with dry woody leaves. From above it is covered with a film or roofing felt to prevent moisture from entering the box.
You can cover the bush with paper bags, matting, mats. With such a shelter, the plants overwinter perfectly. In the spring, when the sun warms up, do not rush to remove the shelter. We must wait until stable positive temperatures are established. Return frosts are not terrible for these peonies. Adult bushes tolerate the winter well, with the exception of varieties with double flowers. These bushes should be covered by hilling in the fall.
Reproduction of tree peonies
Tree peonies reproduce rather difficult and slowly. And the older the bush, the more difficult it is to do this. The timing and reproduction technique of bushes are the same as for herbaceous peonies. Tree peonies are propagated by dividing rhizomes, layering, grafting, cuttings and seeds. It is rational to start dividing bushes at the age of 4-5 years, since older bushes have many large roots, division is difficult, and many roots are damaged. And the cuttings from old plants do not take root well. Therefore, after the earth has settled, the upper buds on the root collar of the delenka should be buried no more than 5 -6 cm.
Reproduction by layering: on a one-year-old healthy shoot, a shallow incision should be made from below, the branch should be bent and pinned to the ground. Cover the incision with loose, nutritious moist soil with a layer of 10-12 cm. Constant moisture is required. After rooting, the shoot must be cut off and planted, preferably in a permanent place, since the plant is sick during transplantation. Four-year and five-year-old bushes can be used for vertical propagation.
To do this, hilling plants is carried out 2-3 times during the summer. In the first year by 20 cm. In the second year - to a height of 25 cm. Hilling in the second year promotes the formation of roots on the shoots of the previous year. Layers that have a good root system are separated at the end of the second year, having broken the plant. The rest are left to grow for another year. Sections are disinfected with charcoal powder with sulfur.
Grafting on the roots of herbaceous peonies is done in late summer, in August. The cut roots (stock) should be 10-15 cm long and twice as thick as the grafted cutting. A stalk of a treelike peony should have two or three developed buds. Leaves must be removed from it. Vaccination is done in butt or in cleavage. The vaccination site must be wrapped with insulating tape and coated with garden varnish. The grafted plants are planted in loose fertile soil so that the lower bud is at a depth of 5-7 cm.
Shelter is required for the winter - to spud and cover with leaves, coniferous legs. With a successful operation, the scion has roots and young shoots by the end of the second year. After good fusion, the harness is removed. Grafted peonies usually bloom one year after grafting.
Reproduction by green cuttings is carried out in July - early August, when ripe shoots with formed axillary buds of renewal begin to lignify.
Up to 20% of the stems can be removed from each 6-7-year-old bush without prejudice to flowering. Shoots can be plucked with a quick movement or cut off one bud with a "shield". Shoots without buds do not take root. Before planting in the cuttings, the upper part of the stem is removed by one third or half, leaving 2-3 leaves. The leaves are also shortened by half.
To stimulate root formation, cuttings are immersed for 6 hours in a solution of growth stimulants, for example, heteroauxin (1 tablet per 1 liter of water), before planting. Then they are planted in boxes 20-25 cm high, filled with a wet substrate, a mixture of sand and well-decomposed peat (1:10), no deeper than 1.5-2 cm. The cutting hole should be filled with clean river sand. Then the boxes are placed in a shady place. To prevent rotting of seedlings during the first days, water the substrate daily with a solution of boric acid (0.5 g per 1 l of water) or succinic acid (0.1 g per 1 l of water), and then with clean water.
The cuttings must be kept moist at all times. By autumn, the strongest cuttings take root, the buds noticeably increase - up to 1-2 cm long. Weaker shoots form callus by autumn. In spring, they develop 2-3 filamentous roots. All rooted cuttings germinate next year, shoots with 1-2 leaves appear. In the first winter, it is better to place the cuttings in a basement with a temperature of up to + 5 ° C. In the spring, cuttings should be planted in a school, and in September - in a permanent place or for growing. The distance between plants is 40-50 cm.
Treelike peonies are transplanted in the conditions of the Leningrad region in late August - early September. Seed propagation is possible and easy enough, but the process takes 6-8 years. At the same time, varietal characteristics are lost, but this method gives excellent seedlings adapted to local climatic conditions. The seeds are sown immediately after they are harvested to a depth of 2-3 cm. They are very hard, therefore, their shells must be broken - filed with a file without touching the cotyledons. If this is not done, then germination can be delayed for a whole year.
Interesting varieties of tree peonies
Tree peonies, like herbaceous ones, are long-livers. With good care, they can live in one place for several decades. To preserve their decorative effect, support is required for almost every flowering stem. Several varieties of tree peonies are curious: Evening, Zarya, Carmen, Professor Verchinsky, Eureka, Reine, Elizabeth, Souvenir Maxim, Cornu and others.
Tree peonies are very effective in tapeworms, single and group plantings. They are an excellent dominant in mixed groups, borders, mixborders, in large tracts, in combination with bulbs - tulips at their bases. Give a top-notch transportable cut. The group of tree peonies also includes Delaway and Yellow peonies.
Delaway peony with brown-red cupped flowers. The diameter of the flowers does not exceed 10 cm, the leaves are three times dissected, dark green, large - up to 35 cm long. It is not very decorative because of its short, soft stems. The flowers are hidden among the leaves. It is used mainly in breeding work.
Peony Yellow has cupped yellow flowers up to 8 cm in diameter. Its leaves are double-dissected, gray-green in color with a leathery surface, large - up to 35 cm. For decorative purposes, it is practically not used, but is widely used in breeding for obtaining varieties of peonies with a yellow color.