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Cold-tolerant Varieties And Hybrids Of Amur Grapes
Cold-tolerant Varieties And Hybrids Of Amur Grapes

Video: Cold-tolerant Varieties And Hybrids Of Amur Grapes

Video: Cold-tolerant Varieties And Hybrids Of Amur Grapes
Video: (Grape Preobrazheniye, huge bunches) 2023, March

Varieties and hybrids of grapes for cultivation in the North without shelter

Amur grape varieties
Amur grape varieties

Grapes. Variety New Russian

Grapes have been cultivated in St. Petersburg since the time of Peter I. It was a common culture in the palace greenhouses. The varieties brought from the southern regions felt great indoors. Fruits from some estates were even delivered to the city's shops.

It took years of hard work for breeders to accustom such sissies to our northern climate. In recent decades, the grape growing area has expanded so much that one is amazed: about six thousand grape varieties are grown all over the world, up to ten million hectares of land are allocated for grapes.

But who would have thought that vineyards would also appear near St. Petersburg. However, the desire of breeders for this would not be enough, a very important role in the advancement of culture to the north belongs to the Amur grape - Vitis amurensis Rupr. This species, common in the Far East, is often considered only as an ornamental vine.

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In order for grapes to grow and bear fruit in our northern gardens, they must have many valuable traits and properties. First, to be winter and frost hardy. Secondly, the vine and fruits must ripen in a short summer. Thirdly, high resistance to diseases is required, which, with our air humidity, can destroy the plant. I also want the berries not only to be served on the table, but also to be used for preparations.

Wine and juice of our own production cannot be compared with a store one. Here are how many requests for non-traditional culture. Yes, I forgot one more wish. It would be nice not to cover him. Shelter is a tricky business. It seems that it's still early, then it's too late, it happens that in the spring you can't get to the garden, but you stay behind with the removal of shelters, the eyes on the vine can snag. Do I want a lot? No, all of the above qualities were transferred to their species and hybrids by the Amur grapes.

Amur grape varieties
Amur grape varieties

Grapes. Alpha grade

One of the first to turn his attention to this species is I. V. Michurin. From N. N. Tikhonov and S. P. Kurgachev from Eastern Siberia, he received four varieties of wild grapes with berries of pleasant taste.

By selection from wild-growing forms, he obtained the varieties "Vostochny", "Taigovy", "Siberian yielding" and "Boar large", and by the method of hybridization - "Buyur", "Metallichesky" and "Russian Concord". The latter had as one of the parents the American variety "Concord", belonging to the species Vitis labrusca.

Ivan Vladimirovich invited many talented gardeners to work, one of them was Ivan Pavlovich Potapenko, a passionate and strong winegrower-practitioner. His sons Yakov and Alexander continued their father's work, their whole life is devoted to the culture of grapes. The name of Ya. I. Potapenko bears the Novocherkassk All-Russian Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking.

Alexander Ivanovich is a biologist, writer, philosopher, publicist, professional artist (his name is mentioned in the directory "Exhibitions of Soviet Fine Arts", Moscow, 1981), an outstanding winegrower-practitioner, breeder, author of Amur grape varieties, opening a new stage in the world grape practice. They devoted a lot of time to the selection of Amur grapes and left us with their varieties of N. N. Tikhonov, A. A. Ramming, D. K. Bous, F. I. Shatilov.

However, frost resistance is especially important for the North-West of Russia. In places of natural growth of this species, plants can withstand temperatures up to -40 ° C. Amur grapes have one interesting and important feature. This species completely completes the growing season at the sum of active temperatures (SAT) 2500 degrees, i.e. it is unique in its short growing season.

In almost all plants (and not only grapes), the intensity of shoot growth depends on the air temperature: with a decrease, it weakens, with an increase, it increases. This species is no exception, but … In the second half of summer (end of July), regardless of the sufficiently high temperature, high humidity of the soil and air (ie favorable conditions), the growth of shoots in wild specimens is sharply inhibited and quickly stops. In culture, it lasts a little longer, until September.

Since the growth of the vine is complete, the shoots ripen earlier, which means that they will prepare for the winter period earlier and will be more frost-resistant. This exceptional resistance to low temperatures is inherited by the varieties. It should be noted that any interspecific hybridization of Amur grapes, even with American frost-resistant species, leads to lengthening of the growing season in comparison with genetically pure Amur grapes. Hybrid forms can be distinguished by the delayed autumn coloration of the leaves.

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Amur grape varieties
Amur grape varieties

Grapes. Marinovsky variety

Sunlight during the day, normal soil nutrition and moisture supply contribute to high winter hardiness. The specimens growing in the shade are less resistant to overwintering. The amount of solar energy received by the plant during the growing season is of great importance not only for the preservation of the eyes in winter, but also for the root system.

Resistance to diseases and pests in grapes is assessed on a scale from 0 to 5. The higher this indicator, the more unstable the variety. The refined varieties, unfortunately, have little resistance. Varieties with an indicator of 1-2 points do not require chemical treatments. Species hybrids are generally low. According to AI Potapenko, the state of the environment has come to such a limit when it is simply necessary to establish the limits of chemicalization of crop production. Alexander Ivanovich believes that it is necessary to love and appreciate plants, but not at the cost of destroying the soil and poisoning everything around.

Although Amur grapes are not resistant to phylloxera, the scourge of vineyards, this will not be a problem in our gardens. High winter temperatures, close occurrence of groundwater, poor, not saturated with humus soils - these are the traditional conditions for the growth of Amur grapes. Phyloxera, as you know, prefers rich soils. Where the Amur guest grows successfully, phylloxera does not exist. It should be added that with thickening and shading of the bush, resistance to diseases and pests decreases.

However, he also shows rare salt tolerance. For example, on the soils of the Lower Volga region. The presence of nearby groundwater is not a problem for him, as well as droughts.

Amur grape varieties
Amur grape varieties

Grapes. Variety Neretinsky

Most of the wild forms of Amur grapes are low-yielding. In 1970-1980, employees of the Far Eastern Experimental Station VIR (Vladivostok) carried out studies of this species in nature. More than 500 specimens were studied, selected and involved in the collection and nurseries. The best specimens were selected from the material under study.

For example, VIR - 6919 had a bunch of up to 20 cm and berries up to 1.5 cm, in VIR - 68114 with a smaller brush (12 cm) and a berry 1.3 cm, the yield was 7.76 kg per bush! VIR-6890, not differing in the size of the bunch (11 cm), gave a yield of 5.43 kg, and medium-sized berries (1.2 cm) gained 24.5% of sugar. This genebank was of great importance for the development of modern varieties. NI Denisov, now the director of the Vladivostok Botanical Garden, took part in this laborious work.

The gardener's work is aimed at harvesting. Quantity is an important indicator, but what does Amur grapes taste like? When I first saw dense brushes with dark purple berries, I immediately remembered the taste of Isabella wine. And she was completely wrong. In terms of taste and aroma of berries, it is closely related to European varieties. This is what makes it possible to increase the frost resistance of cultivated grapes without losing the noble taste.

For European winemakers, the size of the berries is not critical. On the contrary, the finer the Vitis vinifera berries, the tastier and better quality the wine. In harsh growing conditions, the berries on the vine will be smaller than on overfed, rich soil. This means that the juice, per liter, will contain more pectins, aromatic substances and other medicinal components. Amur grapes are very technological: a large yield of juice, easily fermented, has an unprecedentedly high percentage of sugar, chocolate tones are present in the taste, which is especially appreciated by winemakers.

Amur grape varieties
Amur grape varieties

Grapes. Variety Purple Early

No matter how much you repeat the word sugar, your mouth will not become sweeter - this is how you can paraphrase Eastern wisdom. How much is a high percentage? In currants and gooseberries, for example, 10-12%, while Amursky-2 Shatilov has 19%, Rant has 22%, and this is not the limit of possibilities. Will there be enough sugar in the berries in our north?

Although it sounds strange, our location is preferable. Daylight hours in the North-West are longer than in Krasnodar, so the plant produces more products of photosynthesis (and one of them is sugar). The second point: in the south in the summer, the air and soil temperature often reaches 35-45 degrees. The leaves switch to retain moisture and sugar build-up is reduced.

What varieties can we use for a non-covering form of cultivation?

1. Pure Amur: "Monastyrskiy", "Amurskiy Violet", "Amurskiy Krupnoplodny", "Amurskie Potapenko" (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) with a yield of up to 8 kg per bush. The latest novelty from Alexander Ivanovich "In memory of Thor Heyerdahl". They knew each other, so they decided to dedicate the best variety from this group to the famous traveler. Winter hardiness up to -35 ° С, brush size - 300 g, berries weighing 3.5 g and sugar up to 25%! Such varieties will open up the possibility of growing grapes up to 60 parallel.

2. In hybrids, frost resistance decreases, but remains high enough. Recommended varieties: "New Russian" - ultra early, bunch up to 500 g, sugar up to 23%; winter hardiness up to -35 ° С; "Kishmish Potapenko" - the sum of active temperatures - 2400 degrees, stable, with increased frost resistance; "Marinovsky" and "Avgustovsky" - one of the high-yielding varieties with an excellent taste of dark blue berries, sugar up to 22%, withstand up to -32 ° C; "Rant" - white berries with a tan, sugar up to 22%, brush up to 200 g, suitable for quality wines; "Saperavi Severny" - dark blue berries, a bunch of up to 200 g, sugar up to 23%, withstands -32 ° C, suitable for obtaining juice and high-quality table wine.

3. The best grape has always been and remains Vitis vinifera. Amursky is its winter-hardy counterpart. Since it is close to European varieties in taste and aroma of berries, this makes it possible to increase the frost resistance of cultivated grapes without losing the noble taste. And since the indicator of their winter hardiness drops to -27 … -29 ° С, then the below listed varieties are best grown with light cover, like some perennials. A little reed or spruce branches will help the removed vines overwinter. "Kristall" - very early with white berries, sugar up to 20%. "Violet Early" - berries up to 3-4 grams, sugar up to 20%, bunch 250 g, has a pronounced nutmeg tone in taste.

Amur grape varieties
Amur grape varieties

Grapes. Variety Augustow

4. The characteristic taste of Vitis labrusca, which is conventionally called "fox", is not to everyone's liking. The epithets "subtle" and "noble" are not about him. As a result of persistent selection, the specific taste was softened, complex interspecific hybrids with the participation of the North American species V.labrusca and V.riparia have high winter hardiness (up to -39 ° C) and strong immunity. These varieties include "Shasla Ramminga", "Far Eastern Ramminga", "Suputinsky 174", "Primorsky".

By the way, I would like to say about the undoubted merits of Isabella and Alpha. They are often confused because of the same flavor, but they are still different varieties. Practically unaffected by diseases, almost maintenance-free lianas are indispensable for arbors and pergolas. Seedling "Isabella -2" - "Pineapple" has a bunch of up to 400 g, a green berry 2.1x1.9 cm, which is almost 4.5 g! Differs in a harmonious pineapple-strawberry flavor.

Of course, there are much more varieties suitable for our climate, but the format of the article does not give the list of all and tell about their characteristics. Choose for yourself what you like. Let the variety of crops grow in your garden. Wherever your site is, there is always a variety that will become your favorite, your pride.

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