Table of contents:
Video: Planting Roses, Feeding, Pruning And Preparing For Winter
Read the previous part. ← Types of roses, their features, the choice of planting material
The queen of flowers is a rose. Part 2
Agricultural technology of roses
Common in the agricultural technology of growing roses can be called the creation of conditions for them to which they are especially demanding: good illumination, heat, moisture and soil fertility. For good flowering, choose the most open and sunny place with protection from cold winds.
The soil should be fertile, water and air permeable, with a pH of 5.5–6.5. Best of all - structural loams, enriched in humus by a third, with the addition of mature compost, chopped straw, a small amount of sand and peat if necessary.
Plant nurseries Stores of goods for summer cottages Landscape design studios
Swampy soils with stagnant water are completely unsuitable. Groundwater should not be higher than 1 m from the soil level. When replacing bushes, you need to know that the soil in the old place is extremely depleted and infected, therefore it is advisable to choose new places for planting or thoroughly replace the old soil (up to a depth of 50 - 70 cm) with a new nutrient mixture.
When arranging a rose garden, up to 20 kg of rotted manure, humus or peat-manure compost are applied to the entire root layer for each square meter of the planting area. With a lack of organic matter, it is introduced locally, into the planting pit.
Rose planting rules
The time for planting roses is late August - early September, but on waterlogged and cold soils, spring is better, when the ground warms up to a depth of 15–20 cm. Roses in containers are planted, as a rule, until mid-summer so that they have time to take root well before winter. The depth of the pit for grafted roses is 60–70 cm, for own-rooted roses - 40–50 cm.
A bucket of rotted manure (this is an old proven method), a glass of sifted ash and 1-2 tablespoons of granules of complex long-acting AVA fertilizer are added under each bush. The distance between plants when planting for park roses is 1–2 m, climbing roses - 1–.5 m, ground cover - 0.5–2 m, curbs - 0.4–0.5 m, miniature - 0.15–0, 4 m.
Before planting, the shoots are certainly shortened to 3-4 buds, so you do not need to strive to choose a seedling with long shoots, it is better to give preference to well-developed shoots and buds. Before planting, the roots are shortened to 20–30 cm or simply renewed, then dipped in a clay-dung mash (3: 3: 10 with water) with the addition of root formation stimulants (root, etc.) for better rooting and preservation of moisture during rooting.
The roots must be freely distributed on a mound of earth, poured onto the loosened bottom of the planting pit. The root neck of grafted roses is buried no more than 1-2 cm from the grafting site. After the soil has settled, the grafting site will be at a depth of 3–5 cm, which is what was required to be obtained. Own-rooted roses are planted in spring, keeping an earthen ball, and 2-3 cm deeper than they grew in pots. The planting hole should be twice as wide and slightly deeper than the size of the coma. Before planting, the shoots are slightly shortened to balance the volumes of the crown and roots, in addition, after transplanting, the leaves of roses often turn yellow and fall off due to stress, pruning softens the situation.
The planted bushes are watered abundantly, and then spud to protect the base of the shoots from drying out and retain moisture. During the rooting period, the bushes are regularly watered, loosening or mulching the soil after that. Young white roots usually form 10–12 days after planting. After some time, they acquire a brown color and begin to actively work in the soil.
If the planting is autumn, then before the bushes are sheltered for the winter with the onset of stable frosts, hilling is repeated. In the spring, when the buds begin to grow and the young shoots grow 2-3 cm, the bushes get bored.
In the first year of planting, roses are not fertilized - they have enough fertile soil and applied fertilizers in the planting pit. In subsequent years, the first top dressing is given after spring pruning: under each bush, 3 kg of rotted manure and 25-30 g of ammonium nitrate per square meter are applied.
The second top dressing is given at the beginning of shoot growth; Kemira Universal - 2 has a good formula of nutrients (used if long-acting AVA is not used).
Until mid-July, liquid organic fertilizers (infusion of mullein or bird droppings, 3 liters per bush) are alternated with mineral fertilizers, after this time, nitrogen is not added. In late August - early September, phosphorus and potash fertilizers are applied (a glass of ash or 20 g of AVA granules containing all the necessary macro- and microelements, except nitrogen and chlorine, and especially suitable for autumn feeding, and this amount of fertilizers will be enough for the next two years, which in itself is surprising, but true).
Pruning roses is a necessary technique to obtain abundant flowering and normal growth of garden roses. According to the time, there are spring, summer and autumn pruning.
According to the degree, strong pruning is distinguished (at the level of 3-4 buds from the base of the bush), medium (5-7 buds), weak (at the level of 8-15 buds). A different type of pruning is recommended for each group of garden roses. It should be remembered that usually 1-3 buds nearest to the cut site start growing.
Spring pruning is the main one, it is done in early spring after removing the shelter and finished before the leaves bloom. They work with a sharp pruner, making even cuts 0.5 cm above the bud. All sections thicker than 1 cm are certainly covered with garden var. After pruning, it is useful to slightly huddle the bushes so that the dormant buds do not dry out.
After spring pruning, roses are preventively treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate (100 g per 10 liters of water), or a 1-3% solution of Bordeaux liquid. Roses are highly susceptible to fungal infections, especially in conditions of high humidity and air at low temperatures.
By the way, the resistance of roses to diseases is understood as resistance when performing all agrotechnical measures, including preventive treatments against diseases and pests. The queen of flowers requires constant attention and care.
First of all, cut off non-wintered shoots with brown, wrinkled bark to the first living bud. The purpose of spring pruning, in addition to sanitary, is to rejuvenate the bush by thinning and shortening the shoots for better tillering and flowering of the rose. Weak and excess shoots are removed from the base, thickening the center, leaving strong, well-developed and well-located.
Hybrid tea roses are pruned strongly, leaving 3-5 well-developed shoots with 3-4 healthy buds directed outward of the bush. Young, weakly overgrown bushes are cut even for 1-2 strong lower buds.
Roses of the floribunda and grandiflora groups differ in the structure of the bush in greater branching. Lateral shoots of the main stem require shortening. For these roses, both strong and moderate pruning is carried out for 5-7 buds. This type of pruning is used because of the ability of these types of roses to grow strongly from the base of the bush.
Polyanthus and miniature roses need to remove weak shoots and shorten strong ones up to 3-5 buds. Here, pruning doesn't take much effort.
There is a practice in climbing roses to remove three-year shoots immediately after flowering. The maximum flowering of these roses occurs on the shoots of the second year of life and older ones, therefore it is so important to preserve annual growths in winter.
With the onset of constant frosts of -5 … -7 ° C, usually in November, shoots of climbing roses without leaves are laid on a layer of fir spruce branches, and on top they are also covered with spruce branches or cardboard, matting.
Summer pruning of roses involves cutting off the faded heads above the second or third leaf under the flower to a well-developed bud. In addition, young plants form a beautiful symmetrical crown, pinching the growing shoots above the fourth leaf. In August, the pinching is stopped and the roses are allowed to bloom. Pinching is also necessary for adult, but weakened plants with an undeveloped crown. By pinching, they regulate the flowering time.
During summer pruning, shoots are removed that thicken the center of the bush, as well as "blind" (without buds), shorten the "fat" ones. At the end of summer, the fading heads are not specifically removed, allowing even the seeds to set, so that pruning does not cause unwanted growth of young shoots. They will not have time to mature enough and will probably die, therefore such a deliberately known waste of plastic substances is warned.
Removing wild growth can be attributed to summer pruning, and it must be done carefully, digging out the base of the rootstock (rosehip) shoot and cutting it into a ring. Cutting at soil level will stimulate branching of the wild shoot and make the job more difficult.
Wild growth can greatly deplete and even completely drown a varietal rose, so you need to carefully and regularly monitor its formation. The formation of shoots is facilitated by insufficient soil compaction during planting, damage to roots during the processing of near-stem circles, frostbite and breakage of the scion.
Autumn pruning also includes the gradual removal of leaves after frosts in early to mid-October. Shoots of roses (except for park, ground cover and climbing roses) are shortened by about half to remove unripe wood that does not overwinter. Cut off shoots and leaves are best burned.
Preparing roses for wintering
At this time, watering and loosening of the soil are reduced. In late September – early October, roses are spud to a height of 15–20 cm (and finally, before the shelter - up to 30 cm) with structural loamy dry soil. Peat and sawdust are not recommended for this because of their strong freezing and the formation of an ice shell.
After the onset of constant frosts in October, all roses, except for park, climbing and ground cover roses, cut off all the unripe (herbaceous) parts of the shoots, leaving about 40 cm in height, as well as all dry, diseased, broken shoots and remove the leaves. In dry weather, for the prevention of fungal diseases, it is recommended to treat roses with a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate or Bordeaux mixture.
With the onset of constant frosts -5 … -7 ° C, usually in November, shoots of climbing roses without leaves are laid on a layer of fir spruce branches, and on top they are also covered with spruce branches or cardboard, matting.
The best way to shelter roses in the middle and northwest zone is considered to be air-dry. To do this, after hilling and pruning, a wire or wooden frame (rack box) is installed over the roses, an insulating material in the form of spruce branches, cardboard, roofing material is placed on it, covered with a film on top, fixed and at the same time leaving vents at the ends for ventilation.
Some gardeners cover the bushes under the frame with dry healthy leaves of oak, maple, which are harvested in advance during the fall. You can make a "hut" of spruce branches over the bushes. In winter, roses suffer the most not even from frost, but from excess moisture during a thaw. Therefore, in no case should a sealed film shelter be made.
In the spring, in late March - early April, if possible, it is advisable to remove the compacted snow from the shelter, shake the spruce branches so that air flows to the plants. At this time, grooves are made to drain melt water. As the soil thaws, spruce branches and other shelter are gradually removed, preferably on cloudy days, in order to prevent sunburn of the bark and drying out of plants. The rose bushes are uncooked when the soil warms up by 15–20 cm. Then the main pruning is started in accordance with the characteristics of each group of roses.