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Video: Growing Actinidia Kolomikt In A Summer Cottage
Biological features of actinidia kolomikta
Often in the Far East you can find such a plant as actinidia. Of the more than 30 species of this genus (Actinidia Lindl), three are most widespread: actinidia colomicta, actinidia polygamous and actinidia argunta. The most winter-hardy of them is the actinidia kolomikta. It is increasingly found now in horticultural plots not only in the central zone of Russia, but also in more northern regions.
Actinidia is a tree-like vine that wraps around the support in the opposite direction to the direction of the sun. Young shoots are dark, reddish-brown in color, while old ones are dark brown, flaky. Actinidia leaves are rather large and rough. In summer, this plant is characterized by a change in the color of the leaves, which gives the vines an unusually decorative look. Whitening of many leaves is observed shortly before flowering. After 1.5–2 weeks, the white color changes to crimson, which remains until the end of the growing season. But sometimes there are plants that retain the green color of the leaves until the end of summer.
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Actinidia is a dioecious plant: on some specimens, female flowers form, and on others, male flowers. To obtain high yields, it is necessary to co-grow females with males. The flowers of the plant are white, rather large with a delicate pleasant aroma.
Fruits are dark green with longitudinal light stripes. They can be oval, cylindrical or round, medium-sized - up to 4 cm and weighing from 2 to 5 grams. A major drawback of this culture is the non-simultaneous ripening and falling off of ripe fruits. In addition, their delicate and soft consistency makes them non-transportable, so they are harvested 3-7 days before the onset of full ripeness. However, the taste of the fruit deteriorates and aroma is lost.
The root system of actinidia is densely branched. It develops horizontally at a depth of 25–30 cm, that is, in the most fertile soil layer.
Seedlings begin to bear fruit at 4-5 years after sowing, and vegetatively propagated plants - at 3-4 years. The yield of actinidia during the full fruiting period is quite high - an average of 1.2 kg per bush. The fruits have a sweet taste and pleasant aroma. Their chemical composition includes a large amount of vitamin C, sugars and P-active substances.
Actinidia prefers loose, loamy, fertile soils with a high humus content and does not tolerate stagnant groundwater. The optimal reaction of the soil solution is close to neutral or slightly acidic. Acidic soils must be limed.
In the first years of life, actinidia plants develop well under the canopy of vigorous trees. For example, in the garden of the Botanical Institute V.L. Komarov, in St. Petersburg, actinidia plants soar up the trees growing nearby to a height of six or more meters. Adult plants tolerate little shade without oppression, but good results are also obtained when grown in open, illuminated areas.
Planting and caring for actinidia
Before planting actinidia, the soil is dug to a depth of 25–30 cm and 5–10 kg of humus or compost and 200–300 g of lime per 1 m² are applied. For planting, planting pits are prepared 60x60 cm in size and up to 50 cm deep. Drainage is laid on the bottom of the pit with a layer of up to 10 cm; for this, crushed stone or sand is suitable. The layout of plants in gardens with a bush form is 2x2 m, with an ordinary one - 1.5 m.
To obtain high yields, it is necessary to plant male and female plants together (for 3-5 female plants - one male). The best time for planting actinidia in a permanent place is spring.
After planting, the soil around the plant is compacted and watered abundantly with water (10–20 liters of water per plant). Then, the trunks are mulched with peat or humus with a layer of 4–5 cm.
Post-plant care for actinidia consists in controlling weeds, in maintaining a loose soil, in regular watering and providing plants with mineral fertilizers. In the spring, before budding, 30 g of ammonium nitrate and 10 g of superphosphate per 1 m² of bite strip are introduced under the bush. After harvesting, actinidia plants are fed with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. Annual mulching of the soil under the plants with humus or leaf compost is recommended. It is also necessary to carry out sanitary pruning in the spring by removing damaged branches.
If actinidia grows like a liana, then for successful wintering the plants must be removed from the support and left in the pinned state, covered with insulating material.
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Reproduction of actinidia
Actinidia is propagated vegetatively, less often by seeds.
Seed reproduction. Actinidia seeds are isolated from berries that have reached full maturity. Fresh seeds are planted, seedlings appear 40–45 days after sowing. In the phase of 1–2 true leaves, the seedlings dive to a distance of 5x5 cm.
Propagation by green cuttings is the most effective method of obtaining good planting material. Rooting of green cuttings of actinidia is carried out in film greenhouses. Peat and sand are mixed as a substrate in a ratio of 1: 2. The layer should be at least 20 cm. On top, the substrate is covered with a 5 cm layer of river sand.
The harvesting of green cuttings of actinidia begins in early July, when the tissues of the mother plant begin to lignify. Cuttings are cut 12-15 cm long with 2-3 buds. The lower leaves are removed, and the upper ones are cut in half. The harvested cuttings are planted in a greenhouse at a distance of 5x5 cm. Roots are formed 15–20 days after planting. The survival rate of green cuttings of actinidia is high, 70–100%. In order for the plants to winter better, they are left at the rooting site until spring. Rooted cuttings are planted for growing in open ground in mid-May. One of the keys to the success of the rooting of green actinidia cuttings is the maintenance of high humidity in the greenhouse. This requires watering 3-4 times a day.
Propagation by lignified cuttings. This breeding method is ineffective. The rooting rate of cuttings in this case varies from 10 to 50%.
For lignified cuttings, ripe annual growths 50-60 cm long are well suited, which are cut in November-December and stored in a cold basement until spring. Before planting, cuttings are cut 15–20 cm long, with 3–4 buds. And in late April - early May they are planted in prepared greenhouses.
Reproduction by layering. This breeding method is also ineffective. It is mainly used in amateur gardening.
At the end of May, a strong one-year-old branch is laid on well-loosened soil and pinned at the places where young shoots leave it. You should constantly make sure that the soil is moist. As the shoots grow, the soil layer should be increased to 15 cm. The roots of young shoots give about 40-50 days. The layers are separated from the mother plant in the following spring and planted in a permanent place. Thus, you can get up to 25-30 seedlings.
In the conditions of central Russia, diseases and pests of actinidia are practically not noticed. In some cases, actinidia is threatened by leaf spot, fruit rot and powdery mildew. To combat them in early - mid-April, treatment with a 2% nitrophene solution is used, however, in amateur gardens, in the absence of massive lesions, spraying should not be carried out.
Young actinidia plants should be protected from cats. They can nibble on the bark and buds in the area of the root collar, which causes stunted growth and sometimes death of plants. Therefore, in the first years of life, it is recommended to install metal nets around them. Cats do not cause significant harm to adult plants.
Read the next part. Actinidia blank recipes →
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