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Video: Types Of Roses, Their Features, The Choice Of Planting Material
The queen of flowers is a rose. Part 1
If you ask any person about the most beautiful flower, the answer will almost always be the same: of course, it is a rose, the unchanging queen of flowers. Its amazing beauty and aroma have served as the source of countless legends and stories. She served and serves as a symbol of love, tenderness and passion, beauty and youth, giving them to everyone who sees this miracle of nature.
To get closer to her and get to know her features better, you should plant a rose in your garden. And choosing roses from countless modern varieties and groups is not easy even for a specialist. Let's try to figure it out.
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Classification of garden roses
The classification of garden roses changes with the emergence of new hybrids, the boundaries between different groups can be quite difficult to draw. Until relatively recently, garden groups of roses were distinguished in our country: remontant (capable of re-flowering), tea, tea-hybrid, polyanthus, floribunda, climbing, semi-climbing, large-flowered climbing, grandiflora, miniature, ground cover and shrub, wild rose hips, or park …
This classification is based on the origin and biology of the roses. Now, due to the abundance of imported planting material, gardeners and specialists are faced with a different classification, new groups and varieties appear, and the usual groups are given different names. Moreover, different firms can name the groups in different ways and assign the same varieties to different groups.
Flower bed rose
We can say that foreign classifications are often based on the use of roses in the garden: flower beds, parks, ground cover, ramblers, etc. The familiar, long-term and abundantly flowering hybrid tea, polyanthus, floribunda and grandiflora are referred to as flowerbed roses. One of the relatively new named groups is called "shrub", which means "bush" in English. It includes modern varieties of shrub roses.
The group "shrubby" was named, most likely, due to some misunderstanding in translation from English or German when publishing catalogs. Roses, as they say, are by definition shrubs. Shrub roses now include all wild species and old garden (park) roses bred before the appearance of hybrid tea roses, as well as modern garden roses from the groups of scrubs, Cordes roses, hybrids of rugosa rose, musk rose and moesi rose. Old garden roses are well adapted to the harsh environmental conditions of the middle and north-western zone, are winter-hardy, do not require winter shelter and special care.
They are characterized by a single flowering in the early stages and a very large size of the bushes. But in the fall they have unusually elegant fruits. Modern varieties in the structure of flowers resemble floribunda roses and hybrid tea, they bloom profusely and for a long time (and repeatedly). Often these roses are called park roses, they have a large volume of bushes and height of shoots, high winter hardiness (only some varieties need light shelter for the winter), and disease resistance. Park roses are planted both in small groups and singly, in contrast to hybrid teas and floribunda, for which group planting is preferable in order to obtain the maximum decorative effect.
For an impassable hedge, the Rugosa rose and the wrinkled rose are ideal, which practically do not need shelter for the winter. Since the 80s of the XX century, shrub roses have become known, which can be grown as ground cover plants. Their well-leafy and flowering shoots cover the ground, practically suppressing the growth of weeds. Blooming carpets of roses are amazingly beautiful, while they are unpretentious. These roses are grafted onto stems, obtaining spectacular cascading forms that bloom even with significant winter freezing. Shrubs and shrub roses have a shoot height of 150-200 cm, which corresponds to our usual semi-pebble roses of remontant origin. Ground cover roses are also referred to as scrubs.
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The international classification of roses ARS, adopted in 1976 by the World Federation of Rose Society (WFRS) in Oxford, is based on the principle of using each group in the garden. As new groups are created, the classification undergoes some changes. Currently, all roses are divided into Species Roses - wild, or botanical species; Old Garden Roses - old garden roses, known even before the appearance of hybrid tea roses in 1867 and left unchanged, as having the right to a special relationship; Modern Roses - modern garden roses. All existing species and varieties belong to more than 30 garden groups.
Rose growers in many countries have officially adopted the classification of the American Rose Society. She is published in the periodical "Modern Roses", which is the most complete source of information on modern and old varieties and types of roses.
The choice of planting material for roses
This is a very responsible business. It must be understood that only a seedling grown in the open field on a frost-resistant rootstock in those soil and climatic conditions (or as close to them as possible) can be of high quality, where it will grow further. The experience of gardeners and specialists shows that nurseries from the mountainous regions of France (Meilland) produce just such material, their park roses bloom for a long time, are very stable, do not require special pruning and shelter, except for the usual autumn hilling and several branches of spruce branches in the root zone. Roses from Canada, Germany (Cordes) are traditionally stable and reliable in the conditions of central Russia and the northwest.
Modern rose varieties have copyright names as well as numerous commercial synonyms and code names. Codenames appeared from large foreign companies in order to protect copyrights and consist of two parts. In the first part, capital letters indicate the firm of the originator, the rest of the word - in lowercase letters. For example, the Westerland cultivar has the code name KORwest, since the author (the originator of the cultivar is Kordes (Germany). In catalogs and descriptions it is customary to give all the names of the cultivar. Codes of the main producing countries of roses look like this: KOR - Kordes (Germany), TAN - Tantau (Germany), MEI - Meilland (France), HAR - Harkness (UK), MAC - McGredy (New Zealand), POU - Poulsen (Denmark), etc.
Roses - classic and modern
Half-leafed roses, wormwood, anaphalis
Varieties of different groups of roses have their own characteristics in appearance and agricultural technology. Climbing roses are always of particular interest. Cultural roses with a shoot length of more than 2 meters are called climbing, but breeders classify them as park in origin. Such genes give hope for the significant resistance of climbing roses to unfavorable winter conditions.
Park climbing roses are divided into two groups: ramblers and claimings. Rambler have relatively thin and flexible shoots that can be easily bent to the ground in the fall for shelter for the winter. Rumblers bloom on last year's shoots, as a rule, once, but abundantly and for a long time. Their flowers are medium-sized, there are many disease-resistant varieties.
Climing - large bushes, consist of powerful thick shoots, difficult to bend to the ground for winter shelter. The flowers are single or in inflorescences, medium and large, from a mutation of hybrid tea roses. Bloom continuously, sometimes only on the shoots of the last year. Some varieties of this group bloom poorly under our conditions. Experienced rose growers believe that climbing roses may never bloom if all the shoots are cut in the fall. It is important to be able to preserve the aerial part of these roses.
By the shape of the bush, erect and spreading roses are distinguished. Upright roses have their advantages - they can be planted more densely, while maintaining the convenience of caring for them. Greenhouse forcing roses are of this type.
Spreading roses are extremely ornate in the garden, even if it is one single specimen. The ease of bending their branches makes it easier to work on winter shelter of plants. Spreading roses also include ground cover ones, the length of the shoots of which can reach two or more meters. Their classification is somewhat confused, but the main sign of belonging to a group should be considered the width of the bush, which exceeds its size in height.
Sometimes a squat variety of park roses is considered a ground cover, often a separate varietal group. There are varieties in which the shoots really grow to the sides, in others they sink to the ground due to the weight of the flowers and stems. Often, ground cover varieties are used as climbing trellises for vertical flowering trellises, here their ability to re-bloom and good winter hardiness are very useful.
Ground cover rose on a slide
The presence of thorns on roses makes them, especially ground cover ones, difficult to care for, but there are also thornless varieties, this must be carefully checked from the catalog. The most prickly are climbing roses, which by their nature must climb up and hold firmly there. But even among them there are exceptions - Rimosa has almost no thorns at the ends of the shoots.
One of the most spectacular creations, obtained when working with roses, are standard roses or "pink trees". It is believed that the first stem roses were grafted by buds onto the stem of the common rose hip Rosa canina at the end of the 18th century. Since then, the fashion for these wonderful trees has changed many times, sometimes causing bouts of general delight, then suddenly they considered it boring and pretentious. But not a single rose garden in the world is complete without expositions of standard roses.
The height of the boles may vary. Miniature standard ones have a height of 40-45 cm; either miniature or compact ground cover varieties are grafted onto them. Half-stems have a bole height of 70-80 cm, abundantly flowering floribunda roses are grafted onto them. Standard grafts are grafted at a height of 90-110 cm with eyes of hybrid tea roses.
Weeping, or cascading roses are obtained by grafting three eyes of ground cover and climbing roses (preferably Rambler type) at a height of 120-170 cm. The grafted standard rose reaches full development four years after grafting. Such plants require great care and impeccable care. It is worth buying them only in the spring, in containers (at least 25 cm high) and very meticulously choosing a healthy, strong specimen with two or three developed shoots.
Such a rose is planted in the spring, providing a good volume of planting space and a reliable stake with a height just below the crown. It should be planted at a distance of about 10 cm from the stake firmly fixed in the bottom of the pit and without deepening the root collar. It is important immediately upon planting to provide for a slight inclination towards the bending for the winter.
Be sure to pay attention to the bend of the trunk at its base - it should be on the side opposite to the slope. The nutrient mixture for filling the pit and coma is prepared in advance, and the seat itself is prepared in the fall. In addition to humus, rotted manure, 1-2 tablespoons of granules of long-acting AVA complex fertilizer are added to the planting pit so that the plants do not have a shortage of nutrition, and it will last for at least two years until the AVA “candy” is melted under the influence of root secretions … After planting, soil compaction and watering, the stem is tied to the support stake in three places with a loop-eight: at the base of the stem, in the middle of the height and at the base of the crown.
It is very important to keep the crown shoots from drying out for the period of survival of the planted rose. The following techniques are practiced: the place of budding and shoots are covered with wet moss, cotton wool, and then tied with lutrasil. Over the next 10-12 days, while the buds grow, they tirelessly maintain the moist state of the covering materials.
When the rose engraftment has taken place, the “undressing” of the shoots is done very carefully and gradually - in the evenings in cloudy weather. When the buds dry out, you will have to trim the tops. When a rose grows, its crown will need its own support, in addition to the standard one. Now they sell a wide variety of holders, but you can use self-made devices such as the crosspiece of their metal pipes on which the shoots are distributed.
The peculiarities of caring for standard roses are dictated by the belonging of the grafted variety to a specific group of roses. It is clear that the decorativeness of roses, especially of standard forms, is determined by competent pruning. The purpose of pruning is to form a spherical or cascading crown of the correct shape. All types of roses, except ramblers, are pruned in the spring. Rambler are pruned after flowering so that the crown does not thicken and the flowering intensity does not decrease.
Repaired varieties of this group (Super Dorothy, Super Excelsa) are pruned like climbing large-flowered roses. If pruning is too strong (short), powerful tall shoots are formed that violate the shape of the crown. In cascading standard roses, the main shoots that bloomed last year are cut out, and young shoots of replacement are left. But if there are few shoots, then they are not removed, but their lateral branches are simply shortened.
Particular attention is paid to the stem, which will sprout wild shoots. They are removed by scrubbing or breaking out as soon as they are noticed, including under the garter and in the crown.
The most troublesome is to cover the standard roses for the winter. You have to dig in the roots on one side and tilt the tree in the opposite direction, pin the trunk in the upper part with flyers to the ground. The crown of roses is covered with any of the materials: dry leaves, matting, spruce branches, cardboard. Adult standard rose trees, no longer bending, with the onset of frost spud and wrap the mat with a mat, tying it in a spiral with twine. A matting bag without a bottom is put on the crown, tied under the crown, dry healthy oak leaves are poured inside, and then the bag is tied on top.
Read the next part. Planting roses, feeding, pruning and preparing for winter →