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A Hybrid Of Common Apricot And Manchu - Features Of Culture, Grafting, Division, Propagation By Cuttings And Seeds - Northern Apricot
A Hybrid Of Common Apricot And Manchu - Features Of Culture, Grafting, Division, Propagation By Cuttings And Seeds - Northern Apricot
Video: A Hybrid Of Common Apricot And Manchu - Features Of Culture, Grafting, Division, Propagation By Cuttings And Seeds - Northern Apricot
Video: How to Apricot Cuttings - Fruit Tree Hunter! 2023, February
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A hybrid of common apricot and Manchurian apricot has fully mastered the climate of the North-West region and pleases with abundant harvests of its fruits

Apricot is one of the most versatile garden plants. For its tasty fruits, it is a fruit tree. For the flowers and fruits decorating the garden - decorative. And, finally, for the delicious and very nutritious kernels - nut-nut, as they contain a large amount of easily digestible vegetable proteins and oils.

Apricots
Apricots

Moreover, these nucleoli are, depending on the shape of the plant, both bitter, like those of bitter almonds, and (less often) sweet. The latter are especially valuable. However, readers may notice to the author that apricot does not grow in the Northwest. Indeed, common apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam) does not grow here. But in recent decades, its hybrid with the Manchurian apricot (A. mandshurica Skvortz.) Has appeared here, called differently - northern, Vologda, Leontyev-Osokin, etc. (the name has not yet settled down). Each of them, in general, is correct, although it does not completely reflect the essence of the bred plant.

His ancestor, back in the fifty-third year of the last century, was bred in the Darwin reserve, located in the village of Borok, Kalinin region, A.M. Leontiev. After the tree entered the fruiting season, the breeder sent out its seeds (a hybrid of the second generation) to many people all over the country. However, after his death, most of the plants, including the maternal one, died. Only V.V. Osokin in the Vologda region from several sown seeds, one tree grew and survived, from which this hybrid form was revived, the subsequent crossing of its descendants among themselves and distribution. Currently, there are already thousands of Vologda apricot trees growing throughout the North-West of Russia. The age limit for the hybrid has not yet been established, but it is clear that it grows for at least 40–50 years (there are no older plants yet).

Features of culture

Apricots
Apricots

An adult (40-year-old) Vologda apricot is a tall, spreading bush up to 3 m high and 7 m wide, or a small tree up to 6 m high with good vigor and high shoot-forming ability. Abundant root shoots form around the tree. The bark of the trunk and branches is brownish-gray, the bark of the shoots is reddish-brown. The root system is powerful, deeply and widely (much wider than the crown) penetrating into the soil. Leaves are simple, alternate, on a short petiole; broadly oval or oval, with a pointed tip, finely serrated, green, shiny. Vegetative and generative (flower) buds are formed on bouquet twigs, spurs and last year's growth, are laid 2-3 in the leaf axils. The apricot blooms at the same time as the leaves begin to bloom, in mid-May, its flowering is abundant. The flowers are white or slightly pinkish.Different forms of apricot can be either self-fertile or require cross-pollination. Fruiting is mostly regular. The fruits ripen in mid-August. Ripening is not simultaneous, it stretches for 20-25 days. The fruits are harvested at several times. The fruit is a drupe, weighing from 10 to 25 g. The pulp is sweet and sour taste, delicate texture. Its color ranges from yellow to orange.

Contains sugars (mainly sucrose), fiber, pectins, which help digestion and remove toxins and cholesterol from the body; organic acids - citric, malic, tartaric; it also contains vitamins C, B1, P, PP, a large amount of carotene. Of the microelements, there are salts of potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, iodine, calcium, zinc, copper, aluminum, etc. The stone is small, makes up 6-10% of the fruit weight, smooth, brown, easily separates from the pulp. The kernels contain about 60% of a very tasty nutritious and healthy vegetable oil and up to 25% protein. However, in most forms of apricots, they, like almonds, contain amygdalin, therefore they taste bitter. But even from such nucleoli, oil can be obtained.

In medicine, it is incorrectly called peach. It softens the skin well, therefore it goes into the cosmetic industry, as well as the manufacture of medicines. After heating, the bitter kernels of apricot, as well as of legumes, almonds and some other stone fruits, lose their bitterness and become quite edible. They taste like almonds, they can be used directly for food, as well as for the manufacture of marzipan and other delicious sweets. In addition, as already mentioned, among the numerous bitter-fruited plants, especially valuable specimens with sweet nucleoli are sometimes found. Such apricots, in order to preserve the valuable quality of their nucleoli, it is advisable to propagate vegetatively.

The seed shells can be used to make extra high quality activated charcoal, ink, charcoal pencils and high quality paints. Although the main value in apricots is, of course, not the nucleoli, but the fruits, nevertheless, the latter can also be used. That is why apricot has become one of the nut crops. In addition, exquisite jam can be made from green apricots along with their still soft stone, as well as from unripe walnuts and Manchu nuts.

And also - twice a year, the northern apricot marvelously decorates the garden area. In the spring, it is all covered with white flowers, and at the end of summer - beginning of autumn, it is covered with albeit smaller than those of an ordinary one, but also very beautiful and numerous yellow-orange fruits, which, moreover, as already mentioned, are quite tasty and fragrant.

Apricot
Apricot

The grafted plants begin to bear fruit in the 3rd or 4th year, and self-rooted plants of seed origin - in the 5th and 6th year. Vologda apricot yields maximum yields from 8 to 20 years. Up to five buckets of fruit can be harvested from one mature tree.

Apricot is light-requiring. Does not like the close occurrence of groundwater (closer than 2 m). It is undemanding to soils, it grows on any garden soil, but it still develops worse on heavy, poorly heated and excessively moistened soils. It grows especially poorly in low swampy depressions. Prefers deeply drained sandy loam and light loamy soils with a pH of 6.5–7. In damp places, it is advisable to plant it not in pits, but on mounds.

Apricot is drought-resistant, however, it gives large yields only with normal soil moisture. Possesses outstanding frost resistance, greater than that of the most winter-hardy apple trees, in the Vologda region it withstands frosts up to -48 ° C without shelter. The most severe frosty winters do not frighten him, but he can be damaged during warm ones, alternating with frequent and prolonged thaws, when he comes out of a state of dormancy ahead of time.

Apricot
Apricot

Despite the fact that this apricot is not afraid of severe frosts, it is desirable for it to be protected from strong, drying out the bark and wood of the northern, northeastern and northwestern winds. Therefore, it is better to plant it on the southern side of buildings or protective plantings. But in a place where there will be no drifts. The Vologda apricot practically does not suffer from the scourge of most other species, forms and varieties of this culture - root collar podoprevanie. But even for him in winter, a thickness of snow cover of more than 15 cm is still undesirable. By winter, it is useful to cover the trunk circle with mulch with a layer of 5–7 cm.

There are few diseases in this apricot: perforated spotting, fruit rot, apoplexy (drying out), verticillosis, and even those are rare. There are also not very many pests: aphids, plum moth, cherry elephant, single leaf cutter bee. Particularly great harm in winter can be caused by hares and mouse-like rodents, which of all pome and stone fruit species prefer apricot bark and twigs. Therefore, buried seedlings and planted trees should be protected from them in the most careful way: tie them with a coniferous foot, newspapers, lutrasil and spunbond ribbons. The same harness protects against sunburn. Also whitewashing with VS-511 paints, "Protection" or even just chalk or lime (slaked) with the addition of glue helps.

Propagation by cuttings

Apricot
Apricot

The Vologda apricot is propagated so far mainly by seed, less often by grafting onto its own seedlings, plums and thorns, horizontal and air layers, root shoots, sometimes by dividing the bush, green and lignified cuttings. The latter take root somewhat worse, especially if taken from old plants.

The use of growth substances - heteroauxin, "Kornevin" and others - increases the yield of rooted planting material. When rooting, it should be remembered that apricot cuttings are very susceptible to mold damage, so they must be regularly ventilated, and if lesions occur, spray them with a pink solution of potassium permanganate and other fungicides. As already mentioned, green cuttings root much better. They are cut at the beginning of June, 10-15 cm long, and the lower sections are placed for a day by 1-2 cm in a solution of heteroauxin (1 tablet per 1 liter of water).

A bed for planting is prepared as follows: a groove is dug, drainage (gravel) is put on its bottom to a depth of 40 cm, then coarse sand, above - a layer of grass and manure or compost (for heating), even higher - 20-25 cm of nutritious, good fertilized soil from a mixture of humus and peat (1: 1) with the addition of 0.5 liters of ash and 50 g of double superphosphate for each square meter. And on top - a layer of peat or sand 3-5 cm thick. The garden bed is watered abundantly and boxes-cuttings are placed on it, covered with a film on top, and 4-5 cm lower - with gauze, which, firstly, creates a light shadow, and most importantly - since its edges are lowered into adjacent vessels with water - it works instead of a fogging installation. The distance between the upper leaves of the cuttings and the gauze should be about 10 cm. The lower leaves are removed from the cuttings, after which they are buried into the upper soil layer by 2.5–3 cm.Usually 2-3 leaves remain above the ground. In addition to moistening with gauze, cuttings are sprayed three times daily from a sprayer, and water is added to the vessels. Rooting, depending on the weather, takes place in 3-4 weeks. After a month, parental leaves fall on them and their own ones begin to form. At this time, the cutting boxes should be opened 3-4 times a day for 15-20 minutes. In early August, the cuttings should be fed with a weak solution of manure, and after 3-4 days - ash. After 40 days, by mid-August, they can be transplanted on a scoop together with the ground into a small garden bed, with placement according to a 30x30 cm scheme.The planted plants are watered with warm water, mulched with peat or humus and covered with non-woven material (lutrasil or spunbond). At the end of summer, pinch the top of the shoot so that it becomes woody faster.By mid-September, the shelter is removed. For the winter, the seedlings are covered with spruce legs, dry fallen leaves, peat, etc. But you can put them in early October, when the leaves are dropped, dig them up, tie them into bunches, cover the roots with wet moss, place them in plastic bags (without tying them) and dig them in a dry place in a hole not 35–40 cm deep, covering with dry leaves and sawdust and then snow. Or simply put them in the basement, where they are stored at temperatures from 0 to + 9 ° C. It is best to plant them in a permanent place in the second half of May. With the beginning of the deployment of the leaves, it is necessary to feed with nitrogen fertilizers.put in plastic bags (without tying them) and dig in in a dry place in a hole not 35–40 cm deep, covered with dry leaves and sawdust, and then with snow. Or simply put them in the basement, where they are stored at temperatures from 0 to + 9 ° C. It is best to plant them in a permanent place in the second half of May. With the beginning of the deployment of the leaves, it is necessary to feed with nitrogen fertilizers.put in plastic bags (without tying them) and dig in in a dry place in a hole not 35–40 cm deep, covered with dry leaves and sawdust, and then with snow. Or simply put them in the basement, where they are stored at temperatures from 0 to + 9 ° C. It is best to plant them in a permanent place in the second half of May. With the beginning of the deployment of the leaves, it is necessary to feed with nitrogen fertilizers.

In addition, plus (with positive properties) own-rooted plants can be propagated by root cuttings. To do this, the roots are cut into pieces of about 10 cm in length and planted in loose soil so that the upper cut is flush with its surface. For better warming and nourishment of the cuttings, they are planted obliquely. The main condition for successful rooting is maintaining optimal soil moisture. Both its overdrying and waterlogging are extremely harmful. Root cuttings cannot be treated with growth stimulants, because this has the opposite effect - root growth to the detriment of the emergence of shoots. Saplings grown from root cuttings are grown on the ridges for another 1–2 years.

Vaccinations

Apricot
Apricot

When propagated by grafting, seedlings of small-fruited forms of the Vologda apricot are taken as a rootstock, and on heavy and damp soils, seedlings and layering of winter-hardy varieties of plum are preferable, primarily Skorospelka red, as well as blackthorn and thorny. Apricot rootstocks are drought-resistant, the shoots give little, but some forms may suffer from podoprevaniya root collar. Thorn rootstocks have the ability to adapt to very wide soil and climatic conditions, but, like plums, they have the negative property of giving a large amount of root growth, which requires additional expenditure of effort and time to remove them. Moreover, it should be remembered that not all forms of apricot have good compatibility and strong fusion with plums and thorns, and it is still impossible to predict how certain pairs of rootstock and scion will behave in the future.It is safer to inoculate in the spring, in the second half of April, with a handle with 2-3 buds. Summer budding is not always successful. In addition, many grafted eyes die in winter. It is preferable to plant apricot on plum and thorn rootstocks at a height of 75–100 cm, which additionally protects against podoprevanie root collar (in unstable forms). The survival rate of the Vologda apricot on the sloe, especially on 1–2-year-old shoots when inoculated into the split, is almost 100%. On the common bird cherry, the Vologda apricot is grafted, but the accretion is fragile, and the graft lasts no more than a year. It is possible to use bird cherry as a rootstock only for very limited purposes, for example, temporarily keep the cutting alive (in the absence of another rootstock) and get a one-year growth for subsequent grafting on other breeds.a handle with 2-3 buds. Summer budding is not always successful. In addition, many grafted eyes die in winter. It is preferable to plant apricot on plum and thorn rootstocks at a height of 75–100 cm, which additionally protects against podoprevanie root collar (in unstable forms). The survival rate of the Vologda apricot on the sloe, especially on 1–2-year-old shoots when inoculated into the split, is almost 100%. On the common bird cherry, the Vologda apricot is grafted, but the accretion is fragile, and the graft lasts no more than a year. It is possible to use bird cherry as a rootstock only for very limited purposes, for example, temporarily keep the cutting alive (in the absence of another rootstock) and get a one-year growth for subsequent grafting on other breeds.a handle with 2-3 buds. Summer budding is not always successful. In addition, many grafted eyes die in winter. It is preferable to plant apricot on plum and thorn rootstocks at a height of 75–100 cm, which additionally protects against podoprevanie root collar (in unstable forms). The survival rate of the Vologda apricot on the sloe, especially on 1–2-year-old shoots when inoculated into the split, is almost 100%. On the common bird cherry, the Vologda apricot is grafted, but the accretion is fragile, and the graft lasts no more than a year. It is possible to use bird cherry as a rootstock only for very limited purposes, for example, temporarily keep the cutting alive (in the absence of another rootstock) and get a one-year growth for subsequent grafting on other breeds.many grafted eyes die in winter. It is preferable to plant apricot on plum and thorn rootstocks at a height of 75–100 cm, which additionally protects against podoprevanie root collar (in unstable forms). The survival rate of the Vologda apricot on the sloe, especially on 1–2-year-old shoots when inoculated into the split, is almost 100%. On the common bird cherry, the Vologda apricot is grafted, but the accretion is fragile, and the graft lasts no more than a year. It is possible to use bird cherry as a rootstock only for very limited purposes, for example, temporarily keep the cutting alive (in the absence of another rootstock) and get a one-year growth for subsequent grafting on other breeds.many grafted eyes die in winter. It is preferable to plant apricot on plum and thorn rootstocks at a height of 75–100 cm, which additionally protects against podoprevanie root collar (in unstable forms). The survival rate of the Vologda apricot on the sloe, especially on 1–2-year-old shoots when inoculated into the split, is almost 100%. On the common bird cherry, the Vologda apricot is grafted, but the accretion is fragile, and the graft lasts no more than a year. It is possible to use bird cherry as a rootstock only for very limited purposes, for example, temporarily keep the cutting alive (in the absence of another rootstock) and get a one-year growth for subsequent grafting on other breeds.The survival rate of the Vologda apricot on the sloe, especially on 1–2-year-old shoots when inoculated into the split, is almost 100%. On the common bird cherry, the Vologda apricot is grafted, but the accretion is fragile, and the graft lasts no more than a year. It is possible to use bird cherry as a rootstock only for very limited purposes, for example, temporarily keep the cutting alive (in the absence of another rootstock) and get a one-year growth for subsequent grafting on other breeds.The survival rate of the Vologda apricot on the sloe, especially on 1–2-year-old shoots when inoculated into the split, is almost 100%. On the common bird cherry, the Vologda apricot is grafted, but the accretion is fragile, and the graft lasts no more than a year. It is possible to use bird cherry as a rootstock only for very limited purposes, for example, temporarily keep the cutting alive (in the absence of another rootstock) and get a one-year growth for subsequent grafting on other breeds.temporarily keep the cutting alive (in the absence of another rootstock) and obtain a one-year growth for subsequent grafting on other breeds.temporarily keep the cutting alive (in the absence of another rootstock) and obtain a one-year growth for subsequent grafting on other breeds.

Dividing the bush

When propagating by dividing a bush from a 3-4-year-old bush, you can easily get up to 20 plants with an independent root system. When propagating by root shoots and suckers, do not dig out specimens located close to the mother plant, since at the same time, serious damage to its root system is caused. In addition, such plants usually have an underdeveloped root system, as a result, they do not take root well. It makes sense to harvest them only from own-rooted plus trees with positive properties (winter hardiness, good fruit taste, etc.).

Seed breeding

Apricot, kernels
Apricot, kernels

The main methods of vegetative replication, undoubtedly, will be cuttings and grafting, but so far the most widespread is seed breeding. After washing the pulp, the apricot seeds are immersed in water, the seeds with a well-developed kernel sink, and the empty ones float and are removed. Also remove those seeds that darkened when washed, they usually contain unripe seeds and are not suitable for sowing. It should be remembered that during seed reproduction (during storage of seeds), the seeds should not be allowed to dry out - this leads to a loss of germination. It is better to sow them in the fall, before that you need to lightly spray them with kerosene from being eaten by mouse-like rodents. But you can sow in the spring, after 80–100 days of stratification. In this case, they are stored in wet sand, peat or sphagnum in tightly tied plastic bags at a temperature of 0 … + 3? С.At higher temperatures, the seeds die. They are periodically checked and ventilated, otherwise they may suffocate or mold. Instead of plastic bags, you can also use cloth bags, in which there are usually no negative phenomena. You just need to more carefully monitor the moisture content of the substrate filling them. In autumn, sowing is better late, before the first frosts. Seeds that are planted early can sprout and die. Germination rate is unstable over the years. Sometimes part of the seeds sown can only sprout in the second year. The seeds are sown on ridges created in elevated, non-flooded places. Placement at sowing 20x20 cm, planting depth - 2-3 cm. It is advisable to mulch crops with peat, manure or sphagnum moss with a layer of 1-2 cm in order to maintain constant soil moisture. When a crust forms, it is necessary to loosen the soil,and also remove weeds.

Apricot
Apricot

The loss among seedlings in the first 1–2 years is quite large, and, obviously, is associated with the splitting of parental properties - specimens perish that have deviated in their properties towards the non-resistant ancestor - common apricot. In the second year, seedlings can be planted in a permanent place.

A third option is also possible: in November, seeds are sown in a vessel with sand or peat and kept, from time to time slightly moistened, in a cool room at a temperature of + 10 … + 15? С. Some of them, starting in January, peck. Such plants dive into separate containers and are placed on the windowsill. By summer, they grow large enough, and they are planted in the ground. From mid-April to mid-May, bones that have not been picked are kept in a substrate in a refrigerator (stratified) at a temperature of 0 … + 1.5 ° C, and then sown in a greenhouse, in which the temperature rises to 35 ° C during the day. After 7-10 days, they germinate together. Germination rate with this method approaches 100%. Already in the sixth year, the seedlings of the Vologda apricot can bloom and bear fruit. The ending follows

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