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Video: How And What To Fertilize Tomatoes
The use of fertilizers in growing tomatoes
Tomatoes are among the most valuable vegetables, rich in vitamins and mineral salts necessary for humans. They have high taste properties, contain sugar, vitamins A, C, B1, B2 and others, valuable acids - malic and citric, protein compounds, iron, starch, nitrogenous substances. Tomatoes hardly differ from lemons and oranges in the amount of vitamins.
The harmonious combination of organic acids and sugars in the fruits, as well as the high content of vitamins, characterizes them as a valuable food product, suitable for fresh and canned consumption. None of the vegetable crops are used as diversely as tomatoes. More than 100 different dishes can be prepared from their fruits.
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The yield and quality of tomato fruits largely depend on the conditions of mineral nutrition. With the help of fertilizers, you can control the growth and development of plants. So, when grown in northern regions, in order to accelerate the development of tomatoes and protect them from the cold, it is necessary to strengthen the phosphorus-potassium nutrition.
The positive effect of fertilizers on the quality of tomatoes is better manifested when applying a complete mineral fertilizer in combination with manure. The yield increase is 30-60%. The amount of dry matter in fruits increases from 5 to 7%, total sugar - from 3 to 5% and ascorbic acid - from 20 to 30 mg%. The average fruit weight increases from 50 to 80 g.
A change in the biochemical parameters of fruits towards improvement can be traced when N9P12K9 g / m² is applied, when the fruit yield increases from 6.69 to 8.90 kg per 1 m², the dry matter content increases from 6.0 to 6.8%, the total amount of sugars - from 3.2 to 4.7% and ascorbic acid - from 25.9 to 27.2 mg%, in addition, tomatoes ripened faster.
The content of dry matter, acidity, sugars and ascorbic acid in tomatoes increases with an increase in fruit yield. If the yield increases by 60%, then the dry matter content - from 5.8 to 6.3% (8.6%).
The effect of certain types and forms of fertilizers on the yield and fruit quality is manifested in different ways. With enhanced nitrogen nutrition, tomato plants grow faster, form an abundant dark-colored leaf apparatus, ascorbic acid accumulates in the leaves to a greater extent than without nitrogen fertilizers.
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Nitrogen fertilizers tend to increase the solids and sugar content of tomatoes. For example, with the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers with a 25% increase in fruit yield, the dry matter content increased from 5.84 to 6.14%, total sugar - from 3.44 to 3.56%, ascorbic acid - from 20.04 to 25, 01 mg%.
The lack of mobile nitrogen in the soil leads to a decrease in the yield of tomato fruits and to a deterioration in their quality. The maximum decrease in the content of dry substances in fruits as a result of nitrogen starvation of plants occurs by 2.0% (23%), sugars - by 1.3% (25%) and titrated acids - by 0.18% (26% of the optimal level of healthy plants).
The best form of nitrogen fertilizer for tomatoes is ammonium sulfate. Compared with ammonium nitrate and urea, it has a greater effect on increasing yields, increasing the content of dry matter, sugar and vitamin C in fruits.
Tomatoes also place great demands on the conditions of phosphorus nutrition. Phosphorus accelerates the development of plants, stimulates the process of fruit formation, and improves their quality. The yield increased with the introduction of superphosphate from 2.8 to 3.2 kg per m2, the amount of dry matter in the fruits increased from 5.84 to 6.33%, total sugar - from 3.44 to 3.61% and ascorbic acid - from 20.04 to 21.69 mg%.
The same dose of phosphorus fertilizers against the background of nitrogen and potash fertilizers further increased the yield and improved the quality of fruits. The yield increased to 3.37 kg, the dry matter content was 5.99%, total sugar 3.52% and ascorbic acid 22.12 mg%. Against the nitrogen-potassium background, phosphorus fertilizers did not have a significant effect only on the sugar content of the fruits, and the rest of the quality indicators of this culture improved under the influence of phosphorus.
The lack of mobile phosphorus in the soil reduces the yield and quality of tomato fruits. The maximum reduction in the content of dry matter during phosphorus starvation of plants reaches 2.6% (30%), sugars - 2.4% (43%) and acids - 0.13% (this is 19% to the optimal level).
Tomatoes are especially sensitive to a lack of phosphorus in the soil during the first period of development. Therefore, the positive effect of phosphorus fertilizers on the yield and fruit quality is manifested especially when fertilizers are applied at two times - before planting for digging and in the holes when planting seedlings. A two-week delay in these works reduces the fruit yield and degrades its quality. Lack of phosphorus at a young age is not compensated by fertilization in the subsequent growth phases.
Potassium plays an important role in the life of tomato plants, which is directly involved in carbohydrate metabolism. With potassium starvation, the movement of assimilates from leaves to roots and fruits is delayed, the growth of tomato stems slows down or stops altogether, leaves at the edges acquire a yellowish-brown color, curl up into a tube and dry out.
With a low level of potassium nutrition, the tomato yield decreases slightly, but the quality of the fruit deteriorates significantly. The maximum decrease in dry matter content during potassium starvation was 1.3% (15% of the optimal level), sugars -1.5% (27%) and titratable acids - 0.23% (33%). At the same time, the physical properties and marketability of tomatoes significantly deteriorated: more than 70% of the fruits had a pronounced greenish green at the stalk, the number of fruits with cracks almost doubled, their color was uneven, the fruits turned out to be small.
As a rule, on soddy-podzolic soils, characterized by a low content of exchangeable potassium, the application of potash fertilizers increases the yield and quality of fruits. Potash fertilizers at a dose of 12 g of active ingredient per 1 m² against the background of N9P9 increased the tomato yield by 2.76 kg (29%), and the sugar content in fruits from 2.01 to 2.42%.
High yields of tomatoes with good fruit qualities can be obtained using organic fertilizers, which increase the yield of this crop without significantly affecting the quality of the fruit. So, on soddy-podzolic soils, the use of 3 kg of manure increased the tomato yield by 1.71 kg (by 27%), and the content of dry matter, total sugar and vitamin C in fruits practically did not change.
Correctly selected doses and ratios of mineral fertilizers together with manure, as a rule, increase the yield and quality of tomatoes more significantly. The most effective for early tomatoes was the introduction of 9 g of nitrogen, 12 g of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers and 3-6 kg of humus per 1 m². From such a combination of fertilizers, the sugar content in tomatoes increased by 0.2-0.5%, dry matter by 0.85% and ascorbic acid by 3.7 mg%.
Trace elements affect the yield and quality of tomato fruits in many ways. They enhance photosynthesis, increase the activity of vitamins, affect the movement of carbohydrates and protein synthesis. Under the influence of microelements, the susceptibility of plants to diseases decreases, and their resistance to unfavorable external conditions increases. Trace elements increase the number of buds, accelerate flowering and thus increase the yield and quality of tomato fruits.
Trace elements are effective in all methods of their introduction - during the main application before planting, during planting and in top dressing. Foliar feeding with weak (0.03-0.05%) solutions of magnesium, copper, boron, zinc, iron and other microelements increased the number of flowers and inflorescences in plants by 11-37%. Trace elements contributed to a significant increase in the dry matter content of fruits.
On soils insufficiently provided with mobile molybdenum, spraying tomato plants with a solution of this element accelerated ripening, increased the yield and improved the quality of fruits, the yield increased from 3.96 to 6.56 kg, the dry matter content increased from 6.44 to 7.39%, total sugar - from 2.70 to 3.27%, ascorbic acid - from 17.54 to 19.34 mg%, carotene - from 2.8 to 3.4 mg%.
Ammonium molybdate, mixed with macrofertilizers (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), also increased the yield and quality of tomatoes. Under the influence of boric fertilizers, the growth of tomatoes accelerated, a large leaf surface was formed, which remained for a longer time. When boric acid was added at the rate of 0.55 g per 1 m2, the yield increased by 1.56 kg, the dry matter content in the fruits increased from 5.28 to 5.69% and total sugar - from 2.41 to 2.59%. A similar dose of zinc sulfate increased the dry matter content in fruits from 6.28 to 6.26% and total sugar from 2.41 to 2.82%.
It should be noted that the use of micronutrient fertilizers for tomatoes does not require large additional costs, but it gives a tangible economic effect. So, every ruble spent on the use of micronutrient fertilizers for tomatoes was paid off by 5-7 rubles of net income.
Costs for the purchase and application of fertilizers for tomatoes, peppers, leafy vegetables in quantities - manure 3-6 kg / m², urea 10-15 g / m², superphosphate 20-25, potassium chloride 15-20, boric acid, copper sulfate, sulfate 0.55 zinc and 0.2 g / m² ammonium molybdate - will amount to a maximum of 5-7 rubles / m² and will easily pay off with an increase in yield 2.0-2.5 kg / m² - at a market value of 20-25 rubles / m² …
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