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Video: Useful Properties Of Tomatoes, General Information About Varieties And Hybrids
2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 20:34
Useful properties of tomatoes
As a rule, when a garden plot is purchased, one of the first structures that most gardeners immediately build are various greenhouse designs. And they are intended mainly for growing the most popular vegetable - tomato.
A delicious crimson tomato is a real piggy bank of vitamins and other substances. 100 grams of these fruits contain almost the daily rate of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). And some varieties of tomatoes, in terms of the content of this valuable vitamin, can even be equated to lemons. Tomatoes contain an abundance of carotene, there are vitamins PP, or niacin, B1, B2, pantothenic acid, peridoxin, biotin, folic acid. Proteins, enzymes, amino acids, mono- and oligosaccharides (fructose, raffinose, verbascose, sucrose), as well as polysaccharides (fiber and pectin substances) are found in their fruits.
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Among other substances, attention is drawn to the high content of carotenoids, organic acids (citric, malic, oxalic, succinic, tartaric, palmitic, stearic, linoleic, coumaric, coffee, ferulic).
In addition, anthocyanins (glycosides, sterols) are found in fruits.
The leaves and unripe fruits contain glycoalkoloids (tomato, tomatidine, etc.). The leaves contain essential oil. In developing fruits, volatile alcohols and aldehydes were identified, which determine the aroma of tomatoes. Tomatoes are rich in mineral salts of potassium, magnesium, etc. Ripe fruits contain a lot of highly digestible iron salts, which play an important role in blood formation.
In terms of iron content, tomatoes are several times higher than chicken meat, fish products, milk and are very useful for anemia. Tomatoes contain a number of microelements (copper, zinc, iodine, etc.), which have a beneficial effect on the general condition of the body. It was found that there is very little oxalic acid in tomatoes and, as previously assumed, it has no harmful effect on salt metabolism. So, in them, in comparison with green salad, oxalic acid is 6 times less, with spinach - 64, with rhubarb - 50, with potatoes - 10 times.
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The high dietary benefits of tomatoes are now widely recognized and are widely recommended for people of all ages. Tomato juice with lemon and honey is especially useful for children. Tomato juice, according to some doctors, has a beneficial effect on the condition of patients with hypertension, its regular use prevents the appearance of glaucoma and cures erysipelas. Some Western European doctors consider the oil in which tomatoes were fried to be an excellent remedy for burns and scabies, moreover, they find it valuable to ensure good sleep.
Doctors often prescribe tomatoes and their juice to patients with various metabolic disorders, diseases of the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract and obese people. This is understandable, since tomatoes enhance the functions of the digestive glands, have a beneficial effect on the liver, and have a general strengthening and bactericidal effect on the body. Tomatoes have strong phytoncidal properties. Juice, and especially pounded fruits (in the form of gruel), are destructive for some microbes and are successfully used in medical practice to treat purulent wounds and ulcers.
History of tomatoes
To be able to properly grow tomatoes, you need to know what this plant is, where it comes from, what are its natural biological properties, the requirements for the basic living conditions - light, heat, moisture and nutrients.
The homeland of tomatoes - tropical countries, they were grown by the ancient peoples inhabiting Peru and Mexico, called "tomato". Subsequently, the French gave the plant such a poetic name as "pom d'amour", that is, the cupid apple, the Italians called it "pomod'aro" - the golden apple.
Now these plants are known to everyone as "tomatoes" and "tomatoes".
In Russia, according to Academician D. D. Brezhnev, tomatoes began to be grown in the south in the 18th century, but in the Northwest they were first cultivated only at the end of the 19th century. Now it is the main greenhouse culture of our St. Petersburg gardeners.
I must say that the tomato that we now have in culture only vaguely resembles its ancestor, which can still be found in Peru, Mexico, the Canary and Philippine Islands, on uncultivated lands. These are plants with small berries no larger than currants, cherries, tasteless or completely inedible fruits, leaves and stems with a sharp unpleasant odor.
About varieties and hybrids of tomatoes
The cultivars of the cultivated type of tomatoes are annual herbaceous plants of the Solanaceae family. They differ in morphological characteristics and economic qualities.
Depending on the duration of the growing season (in days) from germination to the first harvest, tomato varieties are divided into early ripening (100-115), mid-ripening (115-125) and late-ripening (125-130). By the nature of the bush, tomato varieties are divided into branching, determinant and standard.
Branching (indeterminate) varieties form powerful lateral shoots from the axils of all leaves of the main stem. Side shoots of the first order give stepchildren of the second, third and fourth orders. The result is a large bush. In greenhouse conditions, such varieties can bear fruit for more than 16 months, while forming lateral axes of the 20th order and the same number of tiers of inflorescences. The height of the bush can reach 5 m. Branching varieties (lianas) form new lateral shoots, bloom and form fruits until the autumn frosts.
When cultivated in greenhouses, a lot of manual labor is required to pinch such varieties and tie them to supports. These include the well-known Bull's Heart variety and the multi-fruited plum-like varieties - Plum, Humbert and others for whole-fruited canning.
In recent years, a lot of heterotic F1 hybrids of indeterminate type have appeared, tested at the variety plots of the Leningrad region.
Among them, the F1 hybrids Swallow, Strizh, Grain, Carlson, Rianto, Alena, Tortila, Lady, Romatos, Raisa, Resento, Dzhitana, Instinct, Monica, Tsypa, Pharaoh, Vladimir, etc. are of interest for gardeners of the Leningrad region.
Determinant - self-limiting growth, weakly branching varieties. Lateral shoots (stepchildren) in them are formed only in the leaf axils of the lower part of the main shoot and quickly finish branching. The bush is small in size with damping growth. Fruiting is concentrated mainly on the first 2-3 inflorescences. Almost all fruits ripen on plants, but in our conditions they require pinching.
The best varieties and hybrids in this group for our conditions are considered varieties: Gruntovy Gribovskiy, Talalikhin, Zoren, Grotto, Tambovskiy yielding, Siberian early ripening, Kometa, Garant, Golubka, Tsarskoselskiy early, Northern lights, Lyana; F1 hybrids: Red Arrow, Energo, Ilyich, Merchant, Lady, Viscount, Harlequin, Flamingo, Lyalafa.
More productive and disease-resistant are F1 hybrids with a semi-determinant bush (hybrids between indeterminate and determinant forms): Express, Gamayun, Portland, Crane, Dandelion, Blagovest, Mashenka, Dessert pink.
Standard varieties, being determinant, form lateral shoots of only 1-2 orders of magnitude. The stem grows vertically without the need for a garter or pinch. The varieties of this group are best grown in the open field and under the simplest film shelters, and you can successfully get a crop, including ripe fruits. Tested in our conditions are: Nevsky, Baltic, Alpatieva 905, Sever, Reserve, Yantarny, Argo, Otradny, Yubileiny VIR, Yagodka, Ranetochka, Little Prince, Hummingbird, Antoshka, etc.
In recent years, many amateur varieties have emerged. They are interesting, as they represent a variety of tomato species in shape, size, fruit color, however, the above varieties and hybrids are more productive and resistant to the most common diseases.
In terms of the prevalence of cultivation, tomatoes rank first in the world. On my garden plot, the main areas are occupied by tomatoes, I test about 100 varieties annually. This is possible thanks to communication with breeders and amateur seed growers
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