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Video: Useful Properties And Types Of Hot (hot) Pepper
How hot peppers are useful
Usually, when they write about any agricultural vegetable crop, they start with a description of its botanical characteristics, but I will deviate from the traditional structure of the article, although I will mention this aspect in the process of writing.
Any person always first has a question: why grow this vegetable? What is the use of the fact that it is red and even hot or, as they say, hot pepper. But who ever wondered: why is it so popular among southern peoples?
The most amazing thing is that our nature has arranged everything very rationally, only Homo sapiens, a reasonable man, does not always use his mind.
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However, let's remember the chemistry. Hot pepper contains flavonoids, plant pigments, which are phenolic glycosides, containing mainly flavan derivatives as aglycone. But this does not say much to the gardener, not everyone remembers such a subject as chemistry, especially since recently they have been studying at school only what is required for the exam. But this is so, by the way.
Anthocyanins (from the Greek anthos-color) are plant glycosides containing hydroxy derivatives of 2-phenylchromene as aglycone (anthocyanidin). The variety of colors of fruits and flowers is due to the fact that anthocyanins are found in plants in the form of pyrillic salts, quinoid form, or in the form of potassium, calcium and sodium salts.
Anthocyanins also form complexes with flavonols and flavones; pungent pepper contains a lot of them as a result of the formation of hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl groups of the anhydrous base of anthocyanidins and the hydroxyl groups in the aromatic nucleus (copigmentation).
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As a result of this interaction, a huge variety of plant colors is achieved, respectively, and a variety of substances useful to humans. Some flavonols, such as catechin, hesperetin, rutin, quercetin, as well as chalcone and dihydrochalcone derivatives, belong to the vitamin P group and have a capillary-strengthening effect.
Flavonoids are also used in medicine as hepatoprotectors, choleretic (liver treatment). Pepper has long been used effectively in the treatment of liver diseases - it contains flavonoids that help repair damaged tissue. Under its influence, the liver produces more bile, which enters the small intestine.
Pepper has diuretic and many other beneficial properties for humans. The functions of flavonoids and flavonoids in plants are diverse and not fully understood. They protect the photosynthetic apparatus of plant cells from the damaging effects of short-wave ultraviolet radiation, and have antimutagenic activity. In some cases, flavonoids serve as protective agents against plant damage by pathogens.
So we got to the main thing, in fact, we are not so different in our genome from some kind of cucumber or pepper, the mechanism of biological interactions at the level of cells is in many ways similar, of course, for millions of years the evolution went from cucumber to monkey, and then to man got there.
So, flavonoids protect cells from active solar radiation, and in the south, the activity of the sun, as you know, with short-wave ultraviolet light. Now it is clear that by using hot peppers, southerners save their bodies from the insidious sun, prevent mutations in cells, which, as you know, lead to oncology. Flavonoids have strong antioxidant properties.
According to a study by the University of South Florida (USA), they regulate the work of the presenilin-1 protein, which is the genetic cause of Alzheimer's disease. This is why the elders in the south live long and are always sane. They consume red hot peppers.
And not only the strength of mind and spirit preserves pepper, it also has properties of a more intimate character that are inherent in southerners. What I mean? Capsaicin, of course, an alkaloid. This substance gives hot pepper a burning taste. The first person who guessed to measure the degree of hotness of different varieties of pepper was the American pharmacist Wilbur Scoville.
In 1912, he developed an original technique: he handed out different varieties of peppers to tasters and measured how much sweetened water they needed to drink hot peppers. Now we have moved away from sweet water and the pungency of pepper is evaluated chemically, according to the level of capsaicin content. But the scale and unit for measuring the pungency of pepper to this day bear the name of Scoville.
The hotness of the pepper is determined in units. Scoville. When a person's taste buds recognize burning capsaicin, the same information is sent to the brain as in a burn or severe pain, which is the starting signal for the production of the hormone of happiness - endorphin. That is why spicy food feels good. Hot peppers usually contain about 2% of the dry weight of capsaicin.
Endorphins are hormones of rest and satisfaction. They are released through physical contact with the object of love, bringing the lovers a sense of well-being and security. And again, one chemistry, there is no romance, perhaps, falling in love is not at all necessary. There are alternative ways to get the same hormones.
Probably, the production of endorphin by eating hot pepper is more justified, especially since scientists from the University of Nottingham have found that capsaicin, which is responsible for the pungent taste and irritating effect of hot pepper, causes massive death of malignant cells due to the effect on mitochondria, the organelles that provide cells with energy. Moreover, there are no problems with pepper medicine.
For the prevention and treatment of cancer, chili pepper tincture can be used in an amount of 0.3-1 ml per day (in terms of capsaicin). The solution is prepared as follows: pour 1 / 2-1 teaspoon of chili pepper in powder with a cup of cold water, stir and leave to infuse for 10 minutes. Then a teaspoon of this solution should be mixed with water and taken three to four times a day.
It is clear that in a person's life everything is more complicated, and not all feelings are reduced only to the action of hormones. Food cannot replace human feelings, not bread alone, a person is full, but if there is no love, then there is an alternative - the hormone of happiness, which is produced in the hypothalamus when using hot pepper.
You can eat spicy lecho, it contains tomatoes, and they contain 5-hydroxitryptamine, the action of which resembles the action of serotonin. Serotin is a defense against depression, it is responsible for sleep and feelings of pleasure. But even on our private plots, working in the fresh air, you can find your happiness, your hormones of love for nature, for life.
Types of hot peppers
However, let's move on to the pepper itself. Let's start with the most pungent species, in my opinion, exotic.
Bhut Jolokia - Known as a ghost pepper, grown in Assam, India. In 2007, the ghost pepper was certified Chili Pepper and entered the Guinness Book of Records. Its pungency was estimated at 1.041 million points on the Scoville scale.
The record was broken by Nick Woods from Grantham, England: he grew the world's hottest chili, Infinity. The pungency of his pepper on the Scoville scale was 1.17 million points.
From the exotic, one can also name the Red Savina pepper habaneros 1.0350 million points on the Scoville scale.
Peppers are fruits, although they are considered vegetables, but, "botanically" speaking, they are berries. Pepper types are generally classified according to the characteristics of the fruit, that is, pungency, color, shape, as well as their culinary uses. Almost all commercially cultivated pepper varieties are Capsicum annuum. However, one of the main varieties, Tabasco, belongs to Capsicum Frutescens.
Two other peppers are now gaining popularity, Capsicum chinense, Habanero and Rocotillo; and Capsicum pubescens, cultivars Peron and Manzano. Currently, most researchers distinguish several cultivated species and a large number of wild ones within the genus.
Here are the main ones:
Pubescent pepper (Capsicum pubescense Ruiz et Pavon) was widely cultivated by the Incas, its homeland is the highlands of the Andes, where it is known as Rokoto.
Peppers (Capsicum pendulum Willd.) And Capsicum cardenasii are grown in some countries of Central and South America, where they are included in special sauces.
In Mexico, there is a wide variety of forms of paprika (Capsicum frutescens L), called "tobacco" or "chili" by the Indians. It is a typically tropical species and is not grown in the mountains, but in the lowlands. Capsicum frutescens is known to be the first pepper seen by the Columbus expedition. This is the familiar cayenne pepper, chili. The Columbus expedition physician, Chanka, wrote about the natives' diet and spices, which in the language of local residents were called "ahi". This pepper received its modern name from the port city of Cayenne. Cayenne pepper is one of the oldest herbal remedies.
In the valleys of South America, a species of Chinese pepper (Capsicum chinense) is grown, it is characterized by a hanging arrangement of fruits.
The most widespread in the world is vegetable pepper, annual, or capsicum (Capsicum annuum), which has semi-sharp and spicy varieties. There are 85-90 genera and about 2800 species of peppers worldwide.
Let's get to know the peppers better, of course, not in the literal sense, since many are very "bite".
Hot peppers are believed to come from the Brazilian rainforest. They are vigorous plants, many of which are red when ripe, and have thicker fruit walls. Capsicum baccatum (meaning "berry-like"). This unusual species is grown mainly in South America, where it is called for the local "aji". It is characterized by yellow or green spots at the base of the corolla lobes (flower petals). Plants are quite tall for a pepper - up to about 5 feet (1.5 m). Pepper fruits can vary in size.
Chinense means "from China", but it is not, as the species originated in the Amazon Basin and is now widespread in the Caribbean, Central and South America and the tropics.
This species includes many of the world's most popular varieties, including Habanero, Scotch Bonnet and the legendary Red Savina. The pods are of various types and the plants are very diverse, although they have a fruity aroma, often reminiscent of apricot. Many people like it in various sauces.
Chinense is a tropical type of pepper that usually grows best in areas with high humidity. It has a long growing season, its seeds take a long time to germinate.
This species includes all known types of pepper - both Habanero superhots and Bhut Jolokia. My opinion is that Chinense peppers are the tastiest of all, they are very cute, but they "bite".
Aji Chombo (Capsicum Chinense)
Aji Chombo is a Habanero type pepper. He is red, elongated, his homeland is Panama, which is located in Central America.
In general, peppers such as Capsicum chinense can vary greatly in appearance and plant characteristics. Variants are known, such as the famous habaneros, which forms small, compact, perennial shrubs about half a meter tall. The flowers, like most peppers, are small, white with five petals. Fruits vary greatly in color and shape - they are red, orange, yellow, and brown are also known.
Another option is Trinidad Scorpio. This is a tall shrub (up to two meters) with very large fruits, and it sets its fruits only with a long day. Usually 80-120 fruits ripen on the plant. The roots are shallow, which is generally typical for all hot peppers.
It has been suggested that Capsicum frutescens may be the ancestor of the species Capsicum chinense, there are different opinions on this. This species is represented mainly by two varieties - Tabasco and Malagueta. Tabasco is the most common variety of the Capsicum frutescens species. And Malagueta is a popular variety in Brazil.
Other Common Names: Aji Dulce, Cayenne, Cayenne Pepper, Chili Pepper, Chabai Achong, Filfil, Hungarian Pepper, Kirmizi Bieber, La Chao, Mexican Chili, Paprika, these are all Capsicum Frutescens.
Here I would prefer the name cayenne pepper or chili, usually under that name it is sold in vegetable stores. Cayenne pepper is a relative of the chilli peppers. We are talking about many types of different sizes and colors: the color can be from green and yellow to red to dark shades, and the size from 2 to 10 cm. The sharpness of the pepper depends on the species. There are varieties that, in their delicate spicy taste, are more reminiscent of vegetables than a classic spice.
This has led to the fact that, depending on the pungency and pungency, cayenne pepper is classified on a scale from 1 to 120. This scale distinguishes shades of aroma, pungency, astringency and color. Currently, the largest producers of cayenne pepper are some areas of West Africa, Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, California, Guiana, Vietnam, Indonesia and India. The cultivation of cayenne pepper began to be practiced in other countries, and it is often grown at home - in flower pots.
Capsicum pubescens - the name of the component pubescens means - hairy, it has leaves with pubescence. Plants, but especially fruits, are often called rocoto. A very remarkable feature of this species is its ability to withstand low temperatures better than all other types of pepper.
Its origin stems from the wild peppers of Peru and Bolivia, its cultural forms have already been met 5000 years ago. It tolerates both shade and grows well in full sun, is quite hardy. It is a perennial. Pepper pubescens grows like a shrub, and climbing plants are sometimes found. It can grow up to a height of up to four meters.
Another interesting point should be noted: this species is "isolated" from other domesticated species, since it cannot be pollinated with other species.
Another distinctive feature of this species is the black seeds of the fruit. The variety includes the Peruvian rocoto and the Mexican manzano.
The wild form of this species originates from Florida and the Bahamas to Arizona and down through Central America to Colombia. The seeds have been found in archaeological sites dating back to 5000 BC. Scientific evidence suggests that by 3500 BC, Capsicum annuum was already being cultivated. Annuum means annual. In fact, this is an incorrect definition, given that in Chile they are perennials under appropriate growing conditions, we have an annual. This species is the most widespread, five of its domesticated species are widely cultivated. Capsicum annuum, which includes many types of peppers - bell peppers (paprika), jalapenos, chiltepin (hot and sweet) - poses fewer problems when growing.
So, rare types of peppers are for big fans of these burning plants. An ordinary gardener grows early ripening hybrids of hot peppers on his site. For practical purposes, we define hot peppers as very hot and medium. Growing exotic things is interesting, but troublesome. Some rare varieties can germinate for a month and a half or more, some need a certain temperature and humidity, light conditions. And for your homemade preparations, it is better to stop at cayenne pepper, by the way, the Japanese call it Iwo Jima.
It is better to grow modern hybrids on the site, and not varieties, they begin to bear fruit much earlier, which is important in our climatic zone, moreover, they are genetically resistant to many diseases.
I will list those hybrids that we grow on our site:
Hot pepper Gibor F1 - an early hybrid (78 days) of Dutch selection, its fruits are red, dense, size 16x3 cm, fruit weight 40 g. The peculiarity of this hybrid is that it has thick flesh (3 mm) with strong pungency.
Hot pepper Cohiba F1 - early hybrid (74 days) of Japanese selection. Its fruits are red, dense, their size is 18x2 cm. Pepper is moderately medium hot, suitable for many spices and pickles, pickles.
Hot pepper Cayenne Dragon F1 of Japanese selection, early (74 days), shiny red fruits, dense, size 18x2 cm. Chili or cayenne pepper is the main component of the seasoning of the same name.
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