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Video: Growing Hot Pepper
Growing and caring for pepper
Seeds of hot pepper are sown in a pre-cooked steamed (this can be done in a water bath, just as you sterilize the workpieces) a mixture of good leafy or turf soil, humus and sand, coconut substrate (ratio 5: 2: 3). The land is fertilized: 1 tbsp. l. dolomite flour and 1 tbsp. l. not with top "Kemira lux" for 10 liters.
The earthen mixture should not be sour, otherwise the seeds will not germinate, this applies to any peppers, including sweet ones. Pepper does not tolerate acidic soils. The main thing is that mold does not appear on the surface of the substrate, and the earth does not acidify. When sowing seeds, you can water the soil with water with Fitosporin paste dissolved in it, which prevents various mold fungi from developing. Or you can add Maxim to the water during the first watering.
The sowing depth is 1 cm, the seeds are sown not earlier than March 5-10, because we place the seedlings in a film greenhouse without heating. Seedlings are ready for planting by May 15-20.
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It is better to germinate hot pepper seeds under glass in a bright, warm place. The optimum temperature for germination is 24 … + 28 ° С. The average time of emergence is from 7 to 15 days. We grow peppers without picking, in cassettes with a cell volume of 30 ml. The result will be much better than with a pick. Each seedling container must have a pallet.
After the emergence of seedlings, the glass is removed, and the cassettes are placed on the windowsill, closer to the sunlight. You can add an LED Christmas tree garland for illumination if the weather is cloudy. The more sunny days during the growing period, the better the fruits are obtained, this is the law for all types of pepper. The first watering is not earlier than 5 days after germination - just sprinkle the soil with water. In the early days, the seedlings should grow roots, and watering promotes the growth of leaves.
After 2-3 weeks, when 2-3 true leaves appear, the seedlings need to be transferred into glasses of larger diameter (7-9 cm). Two hours before transshipment, the seedlings are watered, a drop of "Zircon" is added to the irrigation water. Then carefully remove the earth clod with seedlings from the cassette. After placing the earthen lump in a larger pot, soil of the same composition is poured onto it, compacted and watered well, while the lump is not buried, i.e. planted at the same depth or 1 cm deeper. At the bottom of the pot, it is advisable to put a few expanded clay granules for drainage. Seedlings are shaded for 1-2 days. The optimum growth of pepper occurs at a temperature of 20 … + 25 ° C.
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Until the formation of the seventh leaf, watered in small doses. Periodically after watering, so as not to expose the roots, add a little steamed nutrient soil. Watering should be regular, but due to frequent watering, the soil is compacted, and the roots do not breathe, the plants grow poorly, so you can carefully loosen the soil. Water for irrigation should not contain chlorine and not be cold.
You can feed hot pepper plants a week after transshipment, and water them with a weak solution of good fertilizer, for example, Kemira Lux or Solution. The next top dressing, combined with watering, is carried out in two weeks. It should be borne in mind that pepper does not tolerate high doses of fertilizers, it is necessary to fertilize with weak solutions - a teaspoon of fertilizer per 5 liters of water. Ash infusion works well on seedlings, it can be added to irrigation water (1 tablespoon of sifted ash is poured into 2 liters of hot water, insisted for a day, filtered and fed).
If the seedlings are too stretched, it is necessary to lower the temperature, reduce the watering and sprinkle on the leaves with a superphosphate extract (1 tbsp. L. Per 1 l of water). If the seedlings have acquired a pale green color, it is necessary to carry out foliar feeding on the leaves with urea (1 tsp per 5 liters of water) and reduce the temperature to 17 ° C.
If the hot pepper seedlings are growing too vigorously, sprinkle them with a superphosphate extract or ash infusion. Seedlings need phosphorus for root growth, nitrogen for growing green mass, the ratio of these elements can regulate the growth of seedlings.
Peppers need a sunny location, sheltered from wind and drafts. 2-3 weeks before planting seedlings in a permanent place, the temperature is reduced to 17 … + 18 ° С. On our site, we grow hot peppers together with cucumbers in the same greenhouse, they get along well there. It is best to transplant peppers into a greenhouse in the evening. Before planting, a handful of good humus and a pinch of superphosphate are placed in the hole. The well is well watered with heated water with "Epin-extra" (1 ml per 5 liters of water).
Seedlings are carefully removed from a glass, a clod of earth is powdered with ash and the plant is planted vertically at the same level as it grew in a pot. The soil must be mulched with peat, humus or simply dry soil so that a surface crust does not form. If the weather is sunny, the seedlings are shaded for the first 1-2 days after disembarkation. The first 5-6 days it is not watered, as at this time it takes root better. We prepare the soil in the greenhouse in the fall. It is important for peppers and cucumbers that it is not sour. For this purpose, it is best to use dolomite flour, adding 150 g per 1 m² (this can be done even in spring). We fertilize the Kemiroi wagon - 1 tbsp. spoon for 1m². We don't introduce manure. For looseness, add well-ventilated black peat half a bucket per 1m².
The roots of the pepper are superficial and therefore the soil should not be allowed to dry out. Pepper is hygrophilous, if the leaves begin to wither, urgent watering is needed, in general, in summer its plants are often watered. Together with top dressing, it is good to introduce growth regulators "Epin-extra" and "Zircon".
The first spraying is carried out after planting the seedlings in the budding-beginning of flowering phase, then repeating it every 2-3 weeks. Consumption of "Epin-extra" - 1 ml of solution per 5 liters of water, "Zircon" - 10 drops per 10 liters of water. It is better to use feeding solutions of low concentration (1-2 g / l).
Hot pepper plants need an abundance of light and do not tolerate drafts. The amount of dressings and their composition depend on the filling of the soil and weather conditions. With a lack of nitrogen, the leaves acquire a pale color, their growth slows down, the lower leaves die off, and fewer flowers are formed. Phosphorus deficiency leads to a change in the color of the underside of the leaves and the appearance of wrinkles in them. With potash deficiency, the lower leaves turn brown and wither, and the fruits become uneven in color.
From a lack of calcium, turgor in the leaves falls and they stick, the upper leaves turn yellow, growth points do not develop, the roots turn brown. Also, from a lack of calcium, apical rot of the fruit occurs. Therefore, based on the condition of the plants, combine the composition of the fertilizers. Now chelated fertilizers have appeared, with it many problems of growing vegetables are solved.
Chelates are organometallic complexes in which the chelating agent firmly holds the metal ion in a soluble state until it enters the plant. The effectiveness of chelates is 5-10 times higher than the corresponding sulfates or phosphates due to their higher solubility and better absorption. For example, "Raikat fruit" is a biostimulant for improving fruit ripening. Contains 3% total nitrogen (N), 6% potassium (K2O), 0.1% iron (Fe), 0.07% manganese (Mn), 0.029 zinc (Zn), 0.01% molybdenum (Mo), 4 % amino acids, 0.2% vitamin complex.
Chelates of trace elements activate the main processes of seed germination: hydrolysis of storage proteins, carbohydrates, fats and oxidation-reduction reactions, thereby affecting the acceleration of seed germination (the dynamics of seedling emergence). They increase their viability, field germination, the growth of aboveground mass and root system. Micronutrient chelates are natural plant nutrition and are environmentally friendly.
Now there are new types of fertilizers, for example, fertilizers of the "Master" series. It is a fully soluble microcrystalline fertilizer - NPK. Due to its ability to completely dissolve, "Master" can be used for foliar applications. This product is free of sodium, chlorine and carbonates and has a very high degree of chemical purity, which is a decisive factor in the effectiveness of foliar applications. Contains microelements in a chelated form.
Each type of fertilizer has its own color. Unlike other similar products, the chelates used in Master are stable at pH from 3 to 11. This is a joint Russian-Italian development. I think that they can already be bought in our retail network, then you will have much less problems with growing vegetables.
Foliar dressing of pepper plants with Nutrivant plus fertilizer has found wide application in industrial practice in many crops and in different climatic conditions of European countries. It is effectively used in Belarus, for example, on potatoes - Nutrivant plus potato (N0 + P43 + K28 + Mg2 + B0.5 + Mn0.2 + Zn0.2) + fertivant - a complex water-soluble fertilizer in powder form with microelements in a chelated form. There are fertilizers of this type for peppers. In a word, world science does not stand still, it can be seen from where vegetables are brought to our supermarkets.
But we can do with what we have. It is good to feed the pepper with fermented grass: finely chop nettle and other herbs (without roots and seeds), fill half of the container with them, pour water and insist under a lid for 5-7 days, stirring occasionally. The finished infusion is filtered from the sediment, diluted with water twice and the soil is watered, 1-2 liters per bush.
For example, tropical America is home to chili peppers. It was known even among the tribes of the Aztecs and Incas, and in those days it was wood ash that was the main fertilizer among the ancient peoples, so that everything new is well forgotten old.
With this article, I want to convince gardeners-gardeners that they do not need to exclude hot peppers from their set of growing vegetables. Hot pepper is a guarantee of your health and longevity. Remember that under its influence, the body produces the hormone of happiness, and it is so often lacking in our modern life.
Photo by Olga Rubtsova
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