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Video: Requirements For The Growing Conditions Of Sweet Pepper
Cultivation of sweet pepper in the conditions of the Leningrad region. Part 2
Requirements for the growing conditions of sweet pepper
The origin of pepper from tropical countries determines its high demands on growing conditions: light, heat, moisture, soil nutrition. In protected ground conditions there are great opportunities to create more favorable conditions for plant development than in open ground.
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Temperature and light
The optimum air temperature for seed germination is 25 ° … 26 ° С, for the growth and development of plants during the entire growing season 20 ° С … 26 ° С during the day and 18 ° С … 20 ° С at night, soil temperature 19 ° С … 20 ° С. Peppers are especially sensitive to temperature fluctuations during the seedling period.
If the seedlings are kept at a temperature of 10 ° C and below for 20 days, then in the future even the most optimal conditions cannot restore the disturbed metabolism. At a temperature of -0.5 ° C, pepper plants die. Strong oppression of plants is also observed at very high temperatures (above 35 ° C).
Temperature conditions are closely related to light intensity. In low light conditions (cloudy weather, at night), the air temperature should be lower than on clear sunny days. This is explained by the fact that in the dark the plant spends the substances accumulated during the day for respiration, and the more intensively, the higher the temperature.
Pepper plants are very light-requiring. Illumination is the most limiting factor in protected ground. The optimal illumination for his plants is 30-40 thousand lux.
In the conditions of natural light in the Leningrad Region, from December to February, peppers cannot be grown without additional lighting. Its seedlings must be grown with additional electric lighting with DRL or DRI lamps. The best quality seedlings are obtained under LF-40 fluorescent lamps in combination with DRLF-400 lamps.
Pepper is especially sensitive to the intensity of illumination when laying generative organs. During this period, the seedlings correspond to the phase of 3-4 true leaves, and the illumination level should be at least 5 thousand lux.
Pepper is considered a short day plant, for normal growth and development, a day length of 10-12 hours a day is enough. However, a positive reaction for a short day in pepper appears only in the first days after germination (10-15 days), and then photoperiodic neutrality sets in. Varieties of different origins react differently to the length of the day. So, varieties from Mexico, Spain on a 10-hour day bloom 10-20 days earlier than when grown on a 14-hour day.
Not only the intensity but also the quality of light is of great importance for good growth and development. It has been found that even in good sunlight, pepper reacts positively to additional illumination with blue light. This explains the positive effect of air-light hardening of seedlings. This technique consists in the fact that the seedlings create a favorable light and temperature regime by opening the vents on cloudless days from the south side, starting in April.
A particularly high quality of seedlings is also noted when grown under a film, since ultraviolet rays come through it, and the glass does not transmit them.
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Humidity of air and soil
Peppers require high soil temperatures. With a lack of moisture in the soil, the peppers do not develop, remain dwarf, their yield decreases, and the fruits become ugly.
Particular attention should be paid to regular and sufficient irrigation of peppers during flowering and fruit formation, since in dried areas, flowers and even the ovary will inevitably fall off. The high demand for moisture can be explained by the origin of the pepper, as well as by the limited spread of the root system and the high demand on water for transpiration and yield formation.
Optimum soil moisture varies depending on its texture and plant age. On light sandy loam soils, the optimal soil moisture should be at least 70% of the maximum field moisture capacity, and on heavier soils - 80-90% of the total field moisture capacity (FWC) in protected soil conditions, where light ground peat or mixtures with peat are usually used, sawdust, tree bark, etc.
Optimum soil moisture should be maintained within 70-80% PPV; 70% - before the beginning of fruiting and 80% - during the fruiting period. With waterlogging, the activity of growth processes decreases due to a lack of oxygen in the soil. Exaggeration of the soil has an especially adverse effect on young plants in the first 3-4 weeks after germination. It is difficult to absorb water and mineral nutrients when irrigated with cold water below 15 ° C.
The best soils for peppers are light, structured, fertile, rich in organic matter. In greenhouses, pepper grows well on peat. The acidity of the soil should be in the range of pH 6-6.6. Peppers are less tolerant of excess soil acidity than tomatoes. Bell peppers are very picky about soil nutrients. The soil is well filled with semi-rotted manure 4-5 kg / m².
Pepper plants are very responsive to fertilization and a well-designed nutrition system is the basis for high and sustainable yields. In terms of the removal of elements of mineral nutrition, it surpasses tomato - 1 kg of fruit yield takes out 60 mg of nitrogen, 15 mg of phosphorus, 80 mg of potassium.
Unlike tomatoes, pepper is responsive to nitrogen fertilization during the entire growing season. Phosphorus-potassium fertilizers at an early stage of development contribute to the establishment of a large number of flowers, and ultimately fruit.
The general need of plants for fertilizers for peppers depends on their content in the soil, on their digestibility, removal with the harvest and the consolidation of the applied fertilizers by the soil. Therefore, you need to know that the use of nutrients from fertilizers in greenhouses is: nitrogen - 70%, phosphorus - 35-45%, potash - 80%. At the same time, soil fixation of nutrients from fertilizers is: nitrogen - 10%, phosphorus - 60%, potassium - up to 30%.
Provided that your greenhouse or shelter is filled with good soil, on average, for a good crop of peppers, 4-5 kg of pre-matured manure, 15 g of urea, 25 g of double superphosphate and 10 g of potassium sulfate per square meter are introduced for digging. The same amount of fertilizer is used as top dressing.
The easiest way to create soil for growing peppers is from turf, humus, sawdust. A mixture is made in the ratio: 2 parts of sod land, 3 parts of humus and 1 part of sawdust. A mixture is possible, consisting of equal parts of humus, peat, sod land, sawdust. Sawdust is used stale, they are previously watered with a solution of urea (25 g per 10 l of water, 1 bucket of solution for 4-5 buckets of sawdust). From the soil mixture prepared in this way, beds with a height of 30-35 cm are formed in the greenhouse.
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