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Video: Growing Seedlings, Varieties And Hybrids Of Peppers Suitable For The North-West
Cultivation of sweet pepper in the conditions of the Leningrad region. Part 3
Pepper varieties and hybrids for cultivation in the North-West of Russia
The success of growing pepper largely depends not only on the timely and complete implementation of all agricultural practices, but also, first of all, on the correct choice of a variety, a hybrid capable of producing high full-fledged yields in specific conditions of garden plots.
The State Register of Breeding Achievements for 2005 includes 184 varieties and hybrids. However, in order not to be mistaken with the choice, one should give preference to those varieties that the State Variety Testing Inspectorate has recommended for use in our region. And from this assortment, you can choose a variety or hybrid to your taste.
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The most versatile and plastic of them is the Tenderness variety. It is distinguished by its mid-early ripening and average height. The height of the bush in film greenhouses is up to 100 cm. Fruits are truncated-pyramidal, large, with an average weight of 75-100 g, thick-walled (6-8 mm). Their color in technical ripeness is light green, in biological ripeness - red. The skin is tender, the flesh is very juicy. Fruiting occurs 115-120 days after germination. Productivity in a film greenhouse is 5-7 kg / m². The variety is very flexible, gives a stable harvest every year.
Since we are creating artificial conditions for peppers, a good harvest can be obtained from almost all recommended varieties and hybrids. Anyone who wants to get the earliest fruits can grow the varieties Winnie the Pooh, Agapovsky, Snow White, Loyalty, Gourmet, Dolphin, Kindness, Ermak, Eroshka, Health, Kapitoshka, Kolobok, Oriole, Magician, Medal, Funtik, Postrel, Amber, hybrids Arap F1, Bagration F1, Pinocchio F1, Dobryak F1, Zenit F1, Mercury F1, Othello F1, Raisa F1, Chrysolite F1, Elephant F1.
Lovers of very large fruits can grow high-yield hybrids with a fruit weight of 200-300 grams - Blondie F1, Yellow Bull NK F1, Ilya Muromets F1, Indago F1, Cardinal F1, Montero F1, Orange Miracle F1, Purple Bell F1.
Those gardeners who love peppers with yellow fruits can choose varieties and hybrids Zlatozar, Zolotinka F1, Ivolga, Keralla F1, Yaroslav.
The brown color of the fruit is the Chocolate F1 and Othello F1 hybrids, the purple - the Cardinal F1 hybrid, the golden-white - the Belozerka variety, the silver-white - the Fidelio F1 hybrid, the yellow-orange - the Firefly variety, the dark red - the Nochka F1, Tibul F1, varieties Ruby, Jupiter.
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Growing seedlings of peppers
It is possible to get a guaranteed yield of sweet peppers in the climate of the Leningrad Region and the North-West Region only in greenhouses using the seedling method of growing.
The harvest of pepper largely depends on the age and quality of the seedlings. The optimum age for seedlings is 60-65 days. Unlike tomatoes, pepper seedlings do not stretch and by the time of planting they have 20-25 cm, 7-9 true leaves and first buds.
When choosing the time for sowing pepper for seedlings, it should be borne in mind that pepper seeds sprout tightly (for 8-10 days, therefore they are prepared before sowing. As for tomato seeds, disinfection is carried out in potassium permanganate (1 g of potassium permanganate per 0.5 l water), washed with running water and soaked in a solution of wood ash (2 tablespoons per 1 liter of water) for a day.Then, without rinsing, the seeds are germinated in a damp cloth at a temperature of 25-30 ° C, the seeds are pecked for 4-5 days …
Seedlings must be grown in pots of 8x8 or 10x10 cm in size. Seedlings grown in pots tolerate transplanting better and give a more reliable harvest. The pots are filled with a nutrient mixture (1-2 parts of peat, 5 parts of humus, 3-4 parts of turf or garden soil and 100-200 g of wood ash per bucket of mixture). The pots are not filled to the very top, leaving 2-3 cm for the subsequent filling of the soil. Then they are spilled with warm potassium permanganate (red solution) with the addition of fertilizers and chalk.
Sprouted seeds are laid out one at a time (for insurance, you can take two, but later one strongest plant is left), slightly covered with the same mixture and covered with plastic wrap until shoots appear, so that the soil does not dry out.
As soon as shoots appear, the boxes are placed in the brightest and coolest place. The first 3-4 days the temperature during the day is maintained within 15-17 ° С, at night 12-14 ° С. Further, the temperature is maintained at 20-24 ° C. Regulate it by opening and closing the vents.
Growing pepper seedlings is also allowed with a pick of previously grown seedlings in the phase of 2-3 true leaves. After picking, the plants are watered with warm water and set in a shaded place for two days. Then the seedlings are placed on a windowsill, where there is sufficient lighting.
Sowing seeds for heated greenhouses should be carried out in early February, for film shelters and unheated greenhouses - in late February-early March, since planting seedlings in a permanent place can be carried out not earlier than the end of May due to unstable weather, as well as the possibility of cold weather returning and frost. Seedlings planted in early February will outgrow. In pots, even 10x10 cm in size, there will not be enough soil for a developed root system, therefore, shedding of flowers and ovaries or the formation of defective fruits on the first tier when planting in a greenhouse is very often observed.
In addition, it must be borne in mind that if the seedlings are grown from February-March, when the natural daylight hours are short, it is necessary to carry out electric illumination with 120-300 W fluorescent lamps per 1 m² with a light period of 13-14 hours. Uniform illumination is achieved by rearranging the plants, turning them on different sides to the light.
The temperature is maintained at 22-25 ° C on sunny days, 18-20 ° C on cloudy days, and 15-17 ° C at night. Water the plants with warm water (22-25 ° C). Watering is carried out rarely, but abundantly, in the morning.
Care of the seedlings must be very careful, since only in this case it is possible to grow good-quality seedlings - strong, short, with a thick stem, stocky, healthy, ensuring high yields.
You can not pamper the seedlings, allow them to stretch. On the other hand, the stems should not be lignified, that is, premature aging of plants should not be allowed.
Proper watering and adherence to the thermal regime can help avoid blackleg peppers.
During the growing period, the seedlings are fed twice: the first time in the phase of 1-2 true leaves - 5 g of ecofoska is taken per 1 liter of water, the second time - in the phase of 4-5 true leaves at the rate of 6 g of superphosphate and 3 g of potassium sulfate per 1 l of water. For 10-12 plants, 2 liters of water are consumed.
Plants are hardened 10-12 days before planting. To do this, pots with seedlings are taken out to the balcony at an outside air temperature of at least 12-13 ° C. First, they are there for 2-3 hours, then the time is increased to 10-12 hours, and 3-5 days before planting, the seedlings are left overnight, if frosts are not expected.
Seedlings are planted under a film on May 15-20, but during this period the danger of spring frosts remains, and in this case it is necessary to cover the seedlings inside the greenhouse with a second film using metal arcs, and also to carry out abundant irrigation by sprinkling.