Table of contents:
Video: Prolongation Of Fruiting Cucumbers, Harvesting
"Cucumber Encyclopedia". Part 3
How to extend the supply of fresh cucumbers in late summer - early autumn?
1. Form cucumbers on a vertical trellis: for this, the shoots are vertically tied to the supports located in the upper part of the greenhouse and should be distributed in such a way that the top of any shoot is always as illuminated as possible. The lack of light reaching the top of the plant is one of the reasons for the sterility of the pollen of future flowers. As a result, such flowers will not produce cucumbers.
When the lashes reach the upper part of the support for further growth, they are directed vertically down, and in no case along the horizontally located support of the greenhouse.
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2. Stimulate the growth of new shoots and leaves with ovaries. To do this, you should regularly cut out all yellowed leaves, as well as those leaves that are located below the fruiting zone. In this case, the leaves should be cut not before the first green plant, but a little less, leaving 2-3 leaves before it. The leaves in the fruiting part of the lash do not bring absolutely any benefit, at the same time absorbing their share of nutrients and creating excessive shade. In addition, they prevent the resumption of fruiting in this part of the lash.
3. By all means to fight against numerous cucumber ailments, using both immunomodulators (immunocytophyte) and biological products such as trichodermin and rhizoplan, and preventive measures, such as watering only with warm water around the plant, and not in the root collar zone; the fight against excessive moisture (scattering ash between plants, installing containers with quicklime, dusting the root collar zone with crushed charcoal, regular ventilation). Stimulants (epin, silk) will also help.
4. Control of pests (usually spider mites and aphids) if they appear. The most effective and safest way to combat it is Fitoverm. Usually one spray is enough and the cucumbers will come to life again. In case of severe damage, it should be sprayed twice. Before spraying, leaves with a very strong degree of damage must be removed and burned.
5. Adequate plant nutrition. It is worth paying particular attention to the fact that cucumbers, on the one hand, due to the creation of a powerful leaf apparatus, require considerable doses of nitrogen fertilizers (therefore, regular feeding with mullein is necessary). On the other hand, due to our climatic conditions, plants require increased doses of potassium fertilizers (therefore, from the end of June, and sometimes from the beginning of July, weekly fertilizing with potassium sulfate and ash is needed). When feeding potassium sulfate, you need to remember that in sunny weather it is required less, and in damp and cloudy weather - more. Moreover, it should be borne in mind that fertilizers do not need to be applied all at once, but fed in small doses 1 time per week, otherwise you will only get the opposite effect. In addition, of course, constant feeding with small doses of complex fertilizers is also needed, always with boron and magnesium.
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And if the fruits still do not set?
Of course, initially cucumbers, like all other melons, belonged to bee-pollinated plants. But with bees and their substitutes, things are not as good now as in the 19th century or even in the middle of the 20th. It is no coincidence that, therefore, back in the middle of the last century, the first cucumber hybrids that did not require pollination were created. And it was a real revolution. And perhaps all this was due to parthenocarp (the formation of fruits without pollination) - an unusual property inherent in cucumber. This property was once discovered by Japanese and Chinese scientists, and later this knowledge was used by breeders.
And everything would seem to be fine. But there is one very significant "but". Even in strong parthenocarpics, the degree of manifestation of this property (i.e., the possibility of fruit formation without this very pollination) varies depending on the growing conditions. Primarily reduces parthenocarp:
- lack of light, long cloudy weather;
- overdrying the soil;
- excess nitrogen fertilizers;
- high air temperature in the greenhouse.
Therefore, although parthenocarpic cucumber hybrids are capable of setting fruits in the absence of pollination, spraying with fruit-forming stimulants should not be neglected. Parthenocarp depends on the age of the plants and the order of branching. The ability to form fruit without pollination affects the lower nodes of the main stem to the least extent, and to a greater extent - in the middle and upper nodes of the stem, as well as on the lateral shoots. This factor also does not hurt to take into account when forming cucumber plants.
As practice shows, in our harsh conditions, fighting with nature (high humidity, high temperature, temperature changes, etc.) is quite difficult, and there are situations when it is completely useless.
This, of course, does not mean at all that everything should be left to chance, by no means. All the factors listed above, of course, also need to be carefully monitored. But not all of us can change. Let us dwell on those points to which you need to pay, as far as possible, your close attention.
1. Take all possible measures to maintain the optimum temperature. In our conditions, to raise the temperature in the spring, it is realistic to plant plants only on warm ridges, cover the soil with a film or covering material, use stone and bottle mulch (simply by laying out large stones or dark plastic bottles filled with water, which heat up during the day and give your warmth to plants). In the hot period, it is necessary to organize the maximum possible ventilation of greenhouses and hotbeds so that the temperature in them does not rise above 28 … 29 ° C. Doors and vents must be open during the hot period.
2. With regard to illumination, it remains to choose the most illuminated area for greenhouses and greenhouses and to form plants taking into account the available light space. This means that if there is an additional illuminated piece in the greenhouse, then you can leave the stepson you like most in it, if not, then only its cardinal removal is possible. Moreover, for all greenhouse plants, without exception, it is true that their tops should be located exclusively in the light. Therefore, it is required by hook or by crook to extract them from the space they have chosen and direct them to the light. Otherwise, there will be no fruit on such tops later.
3. Provide timely and sufficient watering. This provision, I think, does not require comment.
4.In order to reduce the high humidity in greenhouses and greenhouses (namely, increased, not low humidity, as a rule, we have), it is imperative to carry out intensive ventilation of greenhouses and greenhouses, even on completely gray and rainy days. Naturally, when it rains, you should have only one side of the greenhouse open and one of the greenhouse doors opposite to the one from which rain can enter the greenhouse. And the plants in them should be watered by no means in the evening, but in the daytime or even better in the morning, so that the moisture can be absorbed and the humidity of the air to decrease.
5. Constantly monitor the sufficiency of plant nutrition and take timely measures at the slightest sign of shortage of something. At the same time, we should not forget that all modern hybrids planted by us belong to crops of an intensive type, and, therefore, on the one hand, they require the introduction of constant increased doses of fertilizers, and on the other hand, strictly fractional nutrition, i.e. fertilizing in parts, and not all at once. You need to remember yourself as an axiom: if you regularly feed, then many of the problems associated with pollination will disappear by themselves.
6. Carry out thorough prevention against the appearance of diseases and pests.
7. Take possible measures to ensure plant pollination. In watermelons, pumpkins, melons and squash, this is hand pollination. Cucumbers have self-pollinated hybrids. And the most important thing, and this applies to all of the above crops, without exception, is spraying them with fruit-forming stimulants. Therefore, starting from the moment of the beginning of flowering of plants, it is necessary to spray once every two weeks (in bad weather, every week), spraying with stimulants of fruit formation - preparations "Gibbersib", "Ovary" or "Bud", which will ensure almost complete pollination in any weather conditions.
Is there a difference how and when to pick cucumbers?
Since time immemorial, there has been a basic rule for picking cucumbers: "The more often you pick cucumbers, the more they grow." Do not wait until they grow the size of "bast shoes", collect them very small. Believe me, do an experiment and you will see that the total yield with this type of collection will be much higher. In addition, if you want to get high-quality greens, collect them only in the morning, while it is not yet hot. Previously, peasants in Russia collected them at sunrise. And maybe that's why Nezhinsky cucumbers were famous throughout Europe. I try to follow this rule and pick cucumbers every morning, at about 6-7-8 am, depending on the weather. If the day is supposed to be hot, then you need to pick the cucumbers early, and if not, then you can get some sleep.
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