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Read the previous part. ← Technologies of adaptive landscape farming system

harvest
harvest

Diseases of the potato - late blight and rhizoctoniasis - cause enormous damage to potato growing. The timing of their manifestation and the degree of harmfulness are determined by climatic factors and the level of organization of protective treatments. Under the condition of cool, humid weather during the germination of tubers, the severity of Rhizoctonia will be the highest. The only measure that reduces harmfulness is a high-quality pre-planting treatment of tubers with fungicides.

In addition, attention should be paid to quarantine objects: golden potato nematode and potato cancer. It is recommended to use quarantine measures in production and personal plots. On garden plots, the main safety condition is the cultivation of varieties resistant to them.

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To preserve the harvest and obtain high-quality potatoes, it is necessary to carry out a mandatory pre-planting treatment of tubers to protect against diseases and pests (rhizoctonia, common scab, wireworms, Colorado potato beetle, aphids) with the help of insectofungicides.

The weediness of agricultural crops in the farms of the North-West region is quite large. The following weeds dominating in potato plantings: perennial - bristly thistle, creeping wheatgrass, field sow thistle, field bindweed; field horsetail, annuals - bindweed buckwheat, bird's mountaineer, tenacious bedstraw, white marsh, gray moth, oxalate knotweed, field yarrow, medium starlet, medicinal smoke, odorless chamomile. The fallows are dominated by perennial weeds - common grass, bristly thistle, medicinal dandelion, meadow rank, St. Recommended herbicides: Roundup, Tornado (active ingredient is glyphosate).

For more effective protection of agricultural crops, VIZR has developed zonal protection systems for grain crops, seed and food potatoes, and vegetable crops. Zonal protection systems make it possible to reduce crop losses from a complex of harmful organisms on grain crops by 20 percent, on potatoes by 50 percent or more, and on vegetables by 30-40 percent.

The adaptive landscape farming system provides for mandatory compliance with environmental safety. Environmentally hazardous factors, for example, when growing potatoes are the following:

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Factor 1. Contamination of soil by residual pesticides. To ensure environmental friendliness, it is enough to comply with the standard doses of pesticides application (see table above) Permissible application rate, eg Roundup <2 kg / ha before fall plowing. Other herbicides, insecticides can be used in a single treatment with only a standard dose. Weed control is best done by developing crop rotation and using mechanical means of destruction. Chemical analysis of the soil should be carried out once every 3-5 years and, if necessary, the contaminated fields should be removed from circulation.

Factor 2. Contamination of products with nitrates and harmful chemical elements. For this, it is necessary to control the content of nitrates (normally it should be less than 250 mg / kg of product). The content of diseased tubers in the crop should not exceed 3 percent. The content of residual pesticides - no more than 0.1 mg / kg, the content of radioactive substances - no more than 130 bq / kg of products (cesium), strontium - no more than 60 bq / kg, heavy metals (mercury) - no more than 0.02 mg / kg, arsenic - no more than 0.2 mg / kg. To do this, it is necessary to use mechanical methods of weed control, accurately dose the introduction of pesticides, separate mechanically damaged tubers before storing potatoes, which significantly reduces the spread of diseases. In some cases, it is required to remove from the crop rotation fields contaminated with diseases and pests of potatoes.

Factor 3. Balance of nutrients within the environmentally safe application rate. The NPK (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium) ratio for table potatoes should be 1: 0.9: 1.4 for early and medium varieties, and 1: 1.2: 1.5 for mid-season ones. Precise adjustment of the fertilizer application rates for a specific area of ​​1 m². When applying organic fertilizers, a deviation from the calculated norm is allowed no more than 10%; irregularity of application ± 25%, when applying mineral fertilizers - deviation from the calculated rate ± 10%; irregularity ± 20%.

In cases where the gardener finds himself in a situation where the agrotechnical conditions for growing plants have already been violated, the fertility of the soil has decreased and the soil is already infected with dangerous pests and weeds, and the grown crop does not please him, there is always an opportunity to switch from random farming systems to an adaptive landscape system … In this case, it is necessary to provide for the creation of a replacement crop rotation field, which allows to cultivate the soil well and master the new system. For this, clean fallow is introduced (steam, fallow field - a crop rotation field not occupied by crops during the entire (or part) of the growing season and contained in a loose and weed-free state; an effective agrotechnical means of accumulating moisture in the soil, increasing its fertility, combating weeds, increasing the yield of all crops of crop rotation and the appropriate agricultural technology for them.- TSB)

field
field

Black or early clean steamis the main field of crop rotation. Black couples plow in autumn and early ones in spring. When harvesting the previous crop in the early stages (before September), the processing of black steam begins with peeling. Plowing is carried out 2-3 weeks after peeling. In the fields where the harvesting of the predecessor was carried out late, it is necessary to plow in the spring, moving on to early clean fallows. In the spring, in black steam, it is necessary to close the moisture - to burrow the soil. In May, when weeds appear, cultivate 7-8 cm, and in dry weather - cultivation with harrowing. At the end of May or the beginning of June, organic fertilizers should be applied (at least 10 kg per 1 m2), mineral fertilizers NPK in the form of nitrophosphate 150-200 g / m2, and on acidic soils - additionally lime fertilizers with magnesium (1-1.5 kg 1 m²), then plow the field to a depth of 18 cm.

In the summer period, layer-by-layer cultivation of steam is carried out. The first - to a depth of 7-8 cm, the second and third - by 10-12 cm as weeds appear. Three weeks before sowing, for example, winter rye for green manure or planting strawberries, the soil is cultivated again by 10-12 cm.If manure is not introduced in the spring, then it must be applied in the summer (in July) and plowed 3-4 weeks before sowing winter rye or planting strawberries. Before sowing, weed shoots and soil crust are destroyed by pre-sowing cultivation to a depth of 6-8 cm.

In the fields overgrown with perennial root weeds (sow thistles), 2-3 peeling is carried out in the summer (peeling - cultivation of the soil with special tools - stubble plows - to a shallow depth (8-12 cm). During peeling, surface loosening occurs, partial soil wrapping and weeds cutting. - TSB). The first plowing is to a depth of 8-10 cm, the second - to 12-14 cm, and then, when weed rosettes appear, plowing is carried out with a seam turnover, but not later than 3-4 weeks before sowing the main crop. If rhizome weeds (wheatgrass, coltsfoot, horsetail) predominate, peeling is carried out crosswise to a depth of 10-12 cm, followed by plowing with a massive emergence of weed shoots.

Instead of black and clear vapors, occupied vapors and appropriate treatment can be used. Annual grasses, peas, vetch or other green manure crops harvested early are cultivated as fallow crops. On sandy soils in a pair, bitter lupine is effective for green fertilization. For green manure crops, it is imperative to add lime, organic and mineral fertilizers in the required doses.

After harvesting the fallow crops, processing should be carried out depending on the duration of the period before sowing the next crop, on soil moisture, the degree of its looseness, weediness of the field, and also on the weather conditions of summer.

In years with normal moisture in the field of fallowing non-tilled crops, harvested 3-4 weeks before sowing the next crop, it is necessary to carry out plowing with harrowing after harvesting. In dry weather conditions - deep loosening in several tracks, followed by harrowing. With the emergence of weed seedlings, the soil should be cultivated.

Before sowing the main crop, pre-sowing cultivation is carried out with harrowing to the depth of seeding.

If the site is occupied by grasses, the layer of perennial grasses are treated accordingly. The layer of grasses is a good predecessor to most agricultural crops: green manure, potatoes, vegetables and others. Plowing of a layer of grasses should be carried out in the first half of July, followed by harrowing. With a high soil connectivity, 3-4 days before plowing, a layer of grass is hoe to a depth of 10 cm.

If the depth of the arable layer on the site is insufficient, then an appropriate deepening and cultivation of the arable layer is carried out. It is necessary to deepen the arable layer, especially sod-podzolic soils, taking into account the degree of their cultivation, the properties of the subsurface horizons and the mechanical composition of the soil.

It has been established that on poorly cultivated soils with the presence of a podzolic horizon, the arable layer should be deepened gradually. The first time - when the black steam rises by 1 / 4-1 / 5 part of the initial depth of the existing arable layer with the obligatory introduction of the full dose of lime and the spring application of organic fertilizers for plowing at a dose of at least 10 kg / m? for every 1 cm of the deepening of the arable layer. The second time, deepening in the crop rotation should be carried out after harvesting green manure, the third time - when raising a layer of grasses (each time, appropriate fertilizers are applied).

The deepening of the arable layer is carried out simultaneously with the implementation of phosphorization (the introduction of 1.5-2 kg / m2 of phosphate rock or superphosphate) and the introduction of a complete mineral fertilizer 200 g / m2 (NPK), which provides a high cultivation effect on the subsoil layers brought to the surface. This method of deepening and cultivating the arable layer is available to everyone, it allows you to create an arable layer up to 30 cm thick in a rotation of crop rotation (that is, in 5 years).

On well-cultivated soils, in the absence of a podzolic horizon, a one-time intensive deepening of the arable layer up to 30 cm is possible, with the obligatory introduction of appropriate doses of organic, mineral fertilizers and liming.

Thus, our acquaintance with the new farming system - the adaptive landscape system - is over, we believe that questions may arise, write, we are ready to answer them.

Until then, we wish you success!

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