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Video: Golden Potato Nematode
Globodera potato and its causative agent Globodera rostochiensis
In recent years, the population increasingly appeals to us with complaints about poor growth and development of plants, as well as unsatisfactory storage of potato tubers. One of the reasons for this is the infection of potatoes with globoderosis. Every year, in the spring and autumn, the specialists of our department conduct control quarantine phytosanitary examinations of household plots, examining the contamination of the soil with dangerous quarantine pests and weeds. This is necessary in order to prevent their emergence and widespread distribution in private households.
Globoderosis (potato nematode infection) is caused by golden and pale nematodes. Both types of nematodes are quarantine objects. On the territory of Russia and Belarus, only the golden potato nematode is registered. Currently, this parasite is widespread mainly in household plots, where potatoes have been cultivated permanently for many years. Globaderosis is a type of roundworm. They hibernate in the soil; in the spring, larvae are born, penetrating the roots of potato seedlings, and later into young tubers. In addition to potatoes, the nematode damages tomatoes, and also feeds on weeds from the nightshade family.
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Infected plants have fewer stems, which become long and thin, stunted, and the lower leaves turn yellow and wither. Tubers are not formed or only one or two tubers are formed. The roots of plants are highly branched, they are brown in color, and cysts in the form of golden brown balls are visible on them. From the point of view of phytosanitary standards, potatoes grown in areas infected with the golden potato nematode are absolutely safe for people and can be used for food purposes.
The potato nematode brings the greatest harm in personal plots with the permanent cultivation of this crop in the same place. It greatly reduces the yield of tubers. The source of infection is contaminated soil and tubers, tools (shovel, plow, etc.), with which the infected areas are processed.
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How to deal with a nematode? First of all, you should never plant material of unknown origin in a clean, uninfected area (including not only potato tubers, but also tubers of other crops, bulbs, rhizomes, seedlings, cuttings, etc.). It is necessary to purchase seed only in specialized stores that sell products with the appropriate documents guaranteeing the absence of nematodes and other dangerous quarantine objects.
The foci of nematode distribution are primarily extinguished by alternating crops. To prevent the spread of nematodes, you need to plant potatoes in their original place no earlier than 3-4 years later. The methods of control also include the cultivation of special nematode-resistant varieties of nightshade, but they can also be grown in the same area for no more than 3-4 years in a row.
Of the resistant varieties, the most common in our region are: Skarb, Sante, Vineta, Arkhideya, Zhukovsky early, Zhivitsa. From the garden you need to very carefully remove, and then burn diseased plants and their remains. It is desirable that on and around the site there is no wild fellow potato - black nightshade. The autumn method of dealing with nematodes is to sow rye, mustard, rapeseed as a follow-up or green manure crop. All these methods together will give the best results in the fight against nematodes. In addition, they are all harmless to the environment, plants and humans.
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