How To Fertilize Potatoes With Mineral And Organic Fertilizers
How To Fertilize Potatoes With Mineral And Organic Fertilizers

Video: How To Fertilize Potatoes With Mineral And Organic Fertilizers

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Video: Best Fertilizer for Potatoes | Grow Your Potatoes Organically 2023, February
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growing potatoes
growing potatoes

Potatoes have a relatively poorly developed root system. The weight of the roots is only 7% of the weight of the aboveground mass. The bulk of the roots is in the upper soil layer, but individual roots sometimes go to a depth of 1.5-2 m. The root system of mid-season and late varieties penetrates deeper into the soil than in early varieties.

With good agricultural technology, every 10 kg of tubers and the corresponding amount (8 kg) of tops carry 40-60 g of nitrogen, 15-20 g of phosphorus and 70-90 g of potassium. This is the removal of nutrients by the harvest. In order for the soil not to lose its fertility, it is imperative to add these nutrients to the soil in the form of fertilizers, but, of course, taking into account all kinds of losses. Only in this case, you can get a good harvest and maintain soil fertility.

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Nutrients are absorbed by potatoes throughout the growing season, namely: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium before budding are absorbed, respectively, 13, 10 and 11%, for budding and flowering plants spend 27.20 and 20%, for the growth of tubers - 40, 37 and 39%, for the ripening of the crop - 20, 33 and 30%. Consequently, the lion's share of mineral elements (about 40%) is consumed from the soil for the growth of tubers. In addition, the nutrients already accumulated in the tops are largely used for tuberization, and by the time of harvesting, the tubers contain 80% nitrogen, 96% potassium and 90% phosphorus of their total amount in the crop.

To grow strong tops from germination to tuberization, potatoes need intensive nitrogen nutrition. However, excessive, especially one-sided, nitrogen nutrition causes a strong growth of foliage and delays the process of tuberization.

Potassium nutrition of potatoes is of great importance during the formation of tops, formation and growth of tubers. If the level of potassium nutrition before budding was sufficiently high, then a decrease in the amount of potassium in the future may not have a significant effect on the yield of tubers, since when the tops, rich in potassium, age, the latter moves to the tubers, providing their need for this nutrient.

Potatoes respond well to the introduction of manure, which is explained by the peculiarities of the development of this culture. With the growth of potatoes (before mass flowering), the need for carbon dioxide, nitrogen and ash elements gradually increases, which by this time have time to pass into the soil and air during the decomposition of manure.

Manure is paid the most by the harvest of tubers on light soils, where it decomposes better. According to the effect of manure on the potato yield, the soils can be arranged in the following decreasing order: sandy, sandy loam and loamy. With an increase in the dose of manure, the yield also increases, but its payment decreases, especially on light soils, which is explained by the insufficient supply of plants with water due to the weak moisture capacity of these soils.

Payment for mineral fertilizers for potatoes is higher than for manure. However, a higher increase in potato yield is obtained with the combined application of manure and mineral fertilizers. Therefore, it is advisable to apply nitrogen-phosphorus or nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers with manure under potatoes.

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growing potatoes
growing potatoes

Doses of mineral fertilizers depend on the quality of manure and the degree of its decomposition, the content of mobile forms of nutrients in the soil, the variety of potatoes and other factors.

The optimal dose of mineral fertilizers is less when applied with manure prepared on straw or peat bedding, sufficiently decomposed, as well as in the case of good soil supply with mobile forms of nutrients. Doses of mineral nitrogen fertilizers against the background of manure should be higher for early varieties of potatoes than for late-ripening ones. Early varieties use less nutrients of manure than mid- and late-ripening ones, since, passing into digestible compounds during its decomposition, they do not have time to be used by early varieties.

In most cases, the effectiveness of nitrogen fertilizers against the background of manure is higher than phosphorus and potash fertilizers. Therefore, it is impractical to apply only phosphorus and potash fertilizers together with manure without nitrogen fertilizers.

Various forms of nitrogen fertilization are suitable for potatoes, with the exception of ammonium chloride, due to their high chlorine content. Potatoes respond weaker to soil acidification when physiologically acidic nitrogen fertilizers are applied than other field crops. Therefore, both physiologically acidic and physiologically alkaline fertilizers act on it in the same way.

The effect of various forms of nitrogen fertilizers against a lime background is quite high. The yield of physiologically acidic forms of nitrogen fertilizers increased especially with the introduction of magnesium. With the systematic introduction of physiologically acidic nitrogen fertilizers, neutralizing them with lime helps to increase the yield of potatoes. Therefore, on sandy soils, poor in magnesium, a high effect is obtained with the introduction of dolomite flour.

The effectiveness of various forms of phosphorus fertilizers does not differ significantly both without the use of manure and lime, and against their background. The effect of phosphate rock applied in a double dose was equal to the effect of other forms of phosphorus fertilizers. The efficiency of a single dose of phosphate rock was lower, especially in the first rotation of the crop rotation.

On soddy-podzolic soils, the difference in the effect of the forms of potash fertilizers with a single application and long-term use in crop rotation on the potato yield was insignificant. However, a higher yield increase is obtained from potassium magnesium, which is explained by the positive effect of magnesium in this fertilizer. Various forms of potash fertilizers have a great impact on the quality of the potato crop. They tend to increase the collection of starch.

Nitrogen fertilizers in most cases reduce the starch content in tubers by an average of 0.8%. Phosphate fertilizers increase the starch content of the tubers. Potassium chlorine-containing fertilizers slightly reduce the amount of starch in potato tubers. The manure also reduces starch content (by 1.4% on average).

Potatoes tolerate acidic soil better than other field crops. The optimal reaction for him is slightly acidic (pH 5.5-6.0). In the literature, there is a rather contradictory opinion about the use of lime for potatoes. Many authors do not recommend applying lime directly to this crop. They recommend liming in a rotation farther from the field where the potatoes are placed. However, now there are more and more proposals for the use of lime directly under the potatoes. Indeed, lime in the first year does not have time to show itself negatively and significantly increases the potato yield. The increase from it is on average 0.5 kg per 1 m².

growing potatoes
growing potatoes

The main objection to the introduction of lime under the potatoes is the negative impact on the quality of the tubers. Indeed, the damage to them with scab increases, which largely leads to a decrease in the starch content. In tubers affected by scab, the weight of the cork layer (skin) is twice that of healthy ones.

The main reason that stimulates the development of actinomycetes that cause scab damage to tubers is an increase in the calcium content in the soil, and not a decrease in its acidity as a result of liming. To weaken the scab damage to potatoes, lime must be applied directly under it, and preferably in the form of a magnesium-containing fertilizer - dolomite flour. Mineral fertilizers, especially higher doses of potash, reduce scab damage to tubers and increase their starch content.

In the garden and vegetable plot, many crops are grown that are sensitive to the acidic reaction of the soil. Therefore, without liming acidic soils here in the crop rotation it is impossible to obtain stable high yields of these crops. Therefore, the combination of liming with the introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers significantly increases the productivity of crop rotation without reducing the quality and quantity of potatoes.

Manure, nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilizers, as well as lime, should be applied under the potatoes in the spring for plowing the fall. With spring application, manure decomposes more strongly, and by the time the potato blooms, more nitrogen and carbon dioxide available to plants will accumulate in the soil. In the more humid northern and northwestern regions, fertilizers should also be applied in spring on all soils, i.e. closer to the period of plant growth, since here the loss of nutrients from leaching increases greatly.

When planting potatoes, mineral fertilizers must be applied. The high efficiency of superphosphate applied topically (10-15 g / m2 superphosphate) is explained by the fact that phosphoric acid is less fixed by the soil and is more fully utilized by the plant at a young age. With the simultaneous local application of superphosphate and ammonium nitrate (5-10 g / m²) or nitrophoska 20-30 g / m² (below the tuber and with a layer of soil), the increase increases. This is due to the high carbohydrate content of the tubers, which allows better utilization of nitrogen and potassium during germination and emergence.

Fertilizing potatoes with nitrogen and potassium (20 g / m² of ammonium nitrate and potassium sulfate) in the first period of development are considered effective. Their role increases in rainy periods, when the main fertilizers have already managed to wash out.

In crop rotation after leguminous plants, vegetable crops, the need for potatoes in nitrogen decreases, and in phosphorus and potassium - increases. This is due to the fact that legumes are capable of accumulating nitrogen in the soil, and vegetables that have received high doses of nitrogen leave it behind in aftereffect in large quantities.

Potatoes respond well to the introduction of micronutrient fertilizers, especially molybdenum and copper, and on calcareous soils - and boric fertilizers.

Consequently, the productivity of potatoes with the combined application of manure and mineral fertilizers increases. Therefore, the formula for fertilizing potatoes is as follows (per 1m².): Fundamental background fertilizers - 10-15 kg manure together with 20-30 g ammonium nitrate, 30-40 g superphosphate, 30-40 g potassium sulfate or potassium sulfate, dolomite flour - 400-500 g, ammonium molybdate 0.5 g, copper sulfate and boric acid - 1 g each for digging to a depth of 18 cm in spring + pre-sowing per hole: superphosphate 10-15 g or nitrophoska 20-30 g + fertilizing with ammonium nitrate with potassium sulfate, 20 g each in row spacing along the row to a depth of 10-12 cm during the first row-spacing till the first hilling.

Extreme fertilization options can be different depending on soil and climatic conditions, planned yield, available fertilizers, potato varieties, the presence of diseases and pests, and other conditions where it will be possible to act according to the situation.

Wish you luck!

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