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Nemabakt and Antonem-F - preparations based on entomopathogenic nematodes
The use of chemicals in agriculture and forestry poses a threat to both human health and the state of the environment. At present, in many countries, systems of measures are being developed and implemented, in which the main methods of reducing the number of pests will be environmental ones, contributing to the reproduction and increase in the activity of natural enemies of pests.
For example, in the fight against insect pests, an important place is given to the use of their natural enemies - parasites, predators, pathogens. In this regard, in the last two decades, interest in entomopathogenic nematodes from the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae (class Nematoda) has increased.
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These nematodes are microscopic worms capable of infecting more than a thousand species of insects from various orders, affecting all phases of development except the egg. They are adapted to long-term existence in soil without nutrition, are compatible with many plant protection products, they can be applied to the soil and plants with any type of sprayer. Their resistance to many modern pesticides and safety for humans, warm-blooded animals and plants makes it possible to use these parasites as a means of fighting insects.
Nematodes penetrate the insect's body passively - with food and actively - through the mouth, anus, spiracles and cuticle, after which the nematodes release symbiotic bacteria into the insect's blood. After infection with nematodes, the insect dies for 2-3 days under the influence of symbiotic bacteria and as a result of damage to internal organs by nematodes.
In the body of an insect, nematodes develop within 10-20 days, and if, during infection, single individuals of nematodes penetrate into the insect, then at the end of development tens and hundreds of thousands of individuals capable of infecting new insects migrate into the environment from it.
The use of nematodes against the stages of insect development associated with being in the soil, in the passages of stems, shoots and tree trunks, i.e. against those pests, in the fight against which there are practically no effective means of protection. With a single application to the soil, these parasites allow for a long time to control the number of many species of insects, to form natural foci.
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And now let us dwell on the peculiarities of using nematodes against insects associated in the process of their development with soil: click beetles, cabbage flies; insects harmful in protected ground: weevils, thrips, crickets, mushroom flies, as well as those in the shoots of plants: currant glass.
Clicker larvae, wireworms, are the main phase of development of this pest harmful to plants. When nemabact and entonem-F are applied to the soil surface under potato bushes during the budding period or during its planting at a consumption rate of 500-700 thousand nematodes per square meter, the number of wireworms is reduced by 93.6% by the harvesting period.
A special place among pests of cabbage and radish is occupied by cabbage flies - spring and summer. Due to the practical lack of effective plant protection agents against these insects, entomopathogenic nematodes are of considerable interest. The effectiveness of their use against cabbage flies is assessed by two indicators - crop yield and the number of puparia flies under plants during the harvesting period.
Nematodes are used by introducing invasive larvae under cabbage plants during transplanting into open ground. At the same time, a significant reduction in plant losses from the pest is achieved. Nemabakt and entonem-F are introduced together with irrigation water when cabbage seedlings are planted in open ground, and on radishes - after the start of laying eggs by flies. The recommended consumption rate is 125-250 thousand invasive larvae for each square meter of the garden bed together with irrigation water.
One of the most harmful thrips species that damage greenhouse crops is the western flower thrips. The nymph stages of thrips, as in many species of this order, mainly develop in the soil and are a constant source of population renewal due to the inaccessibility of traditional plant protection chemicals.
The results of production tests show that even with a single but annual application of entonem-F to the soil of greenhouses, a threefold or even greater decrease in the number of Western flower thrips is achieved. At the same time, there are no sharp rises in the number of pests, as is the case when using some chemical means of protection.
In production conditions on cucumber beds, a high biological effectiveness of the biological product against tobacco thrips was also achieved.
In ornamental gardening, weevils can be classified as the most dangerous insect pests. The most harmful is the larval stage of development of the pest, against which nematode preparations are used. Nematodes applied to the soil surface in the form of an aqueous suspension of invasive larvae are capable of effectively infecting beetle larvae distributed throughout the soil.
As the optimal dose of nematodes in a pot culture of cultivation, it is recommended to add 10 thousand invasive larvae under one plant. This achieves a fairly high percentage of pest infestation.
The cultivation of peppers and green crops (parsley, lettuce, dill) in greenhouses is carried out using a technology that excludes the use of pesticides. Crickets lead a secretive lifestyle.
For most of the day, they live under lumps of soil and greenhouse structures that have contact with its surface. The habitat of crickets creates favorable conditions for the effective use of entomopathogenic nematodes against them. With the continuous application of an aqueous suspension of nematodes to the soil surface at a rate of consumption of 2 billion invasive larvae in 300 liters of water per 1 hectare, the biological efficiency of their application already on the fourth day was 74% and 77.9%, and on the 33rd day after the introduction of larvae - 95% and 100%.
The most economically significant pests of champignons in industrial cultivation are mushroom gnats. Sciarid larvae, feeding on the mycelium and fruit bodies of mushrooms, reduce the yield and quality of the finished product. In the system for protecting champignons from these pests in our country, chemical preparations of the organophosphorus and pyrethroid groups and inhibitors of chitin synthesis are recommended.
When an aqueous suspension of nematodes is applied to the surface of the casing layer during the growth of fungal mycelium at a rate of consumption of 1 million nematodes per square meter of plantation, an increase in yield from 4 to 6 kg per meter is achieved.
Glass currant belongs to a group of economically significant pests, its caterpillars feed on the core of currant and gooseberry shoots, which leads to massive breaking off of the stems during harvesting, and their premature drying.
Glass caterpillars are brought in with planting material to nurseries and personal plots. The world experience shows that the fight against glassworm can be successfully carried out using entomopathogenic nematodes.
In the fight against currant glass on currants, Nemabakt and Antonem-F are recommended. The most effective disinfection of cuttings from the pest (biological efficiency 90-100%) is achieved by placing cuttings in wet sand with nematodes (concentration of nematodes 200-300 invasive larvae per cubic centimeter of sand, temperature 20-25 ° C, exposure - 4 days). For the disinfection of uterine currant bushes, it is recommended to use entonem-F at the rate of 2 million nematodes per 200 ml of water per bush by spraying plants in the early spring period.
Over the past 40 years, the All-Russian Institute for Plant Protection in the city of Pushkin has been conducting research to study the characteristics of biology, develop production technologies, use and create biological products based on entomopathogenic nematodes. As a result of this work, two biological preparations based on entomopathogenic nematodes were created and registered on the territory of the Russian Federation: entonem-F (the basis of the preparation is nematodes of the Steinernema feltiae species, strain SRP 18-91) and nematodes (the basis of the preparation is the nematode species S. carpocapsae, strain "agriotos ").
On the basis of VIZR, an experimental-technological line was created for the development of experimental and commercial batches of nematode preparations. On the pilot line, the main technological units of industrial technology have been developed, the originality of which is confirmed by patents of the Russian Federation.
The practical use of entomopathogenic nematodes is also largely determined by the presence of preparative forms that guarantee the survival of invasive larvae during their storage, transportation and use.
Entonem-F and nemabact are manufactured in original, highly water-soluble formulations. In this case, the viability of invasive larvae lasts up to one month at room temperature and up to one year under storage conditions at low temperatures (2-50 ° C).
With the development of the technology for the cultivation of nematodes on artificial nutrient media, for the first time in our country, a real opportunity has appeared to create industrial production for the production of entonem-F and nemabact, especially since this technology does not require expensive equipment and large investments. It's time for action.
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