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Video: The Use Of Vegetables In Diet And Health Promotion
They say that vegetables are loved by people who are cheerful and assertive. True, if a person does not eat anything besides vegetables, it means that he suffers from increased disgust, he is characterized by a fear of difficulties.
For normal physical development and increasing efficiency, a person needs a varied, high-calorie and tasty food. In addition to bread, meat and dairy products, it should also contain vegetables and fruits rich in mineral salts and vitamins. It is known that vegetables are a source of valuable organic compounds. They contain all the essential nutrients: proteins, fats, carbohydrates.
The richest in proteins are young fruits and seeds of peas, beans, beans; carbohydrates - beets, corn, potatoes and legumes; vegetable oils - pepper, parsnips, sweet corn. Peking and Brussels sprouts, green beans, amaranth leaves are distinguished by the content of lysine and other amino acids.
However, the value of vegetables is not only and not so much in nutritional and taste, but also in ballast substances (for example, in fiber), which create a feeling of satiety, prevent the overload of food rations with fatty and meat foods. Vegetables contain 70-95% water, which reduces their calorie content. In addition, fiber promotes better bowel function and the elimination of metabolic products from the body.
The nutritional value of vegetables is determined by their high content of easily digestible carbohydrates, organic acids, vitamins, aromatic and mineral substances. Their varied combination determines the taste, color and smell of vegetables. Many of them have a pleasant scent that stimulates the appetite. It is caused by aromatic substances specific to each vegetable plant - essential oils. They have dietary properties, increase the secretion of digestive juices, which improves the absorption of vegetables and other food products.
There are very few minerals in bread, meat and fats. Vegetables also contain salts of more than fifty chemical elements (half of Mendeleev's periodic table), which enhance physiological processes in the human body.
Calcium, phosphorus, manganese are part of the bone tissue and activate the heart. Calcium contributes to the formation and strengthening of bones and teeth, regulates the processes of normal activity of the nervous and cardiac systems in the body, muscle contraction. It is also required for blood clotting.
There is a lot of iron in the hemoglobin of the blood. It takes part in the transfer of oxygen by red blood cells in the body, and is also part of some enzymes. It is especially necessary for pregnant women and the elderly. A lot of iron is found in melon, spinach, pumpkin and sorrel.
Phosphorus improves brain function. In combination with calcium, it is needed by the body to build and strengthen bones and teeth. Phosphorus contributes to the rapid release of energy in tissues, muscle contraction, and also regulates the activity of the nervous system. There is a lot of it in parsley leaves, corn and green peas.
Potassium and sodium are involved in maintaining the normal acid-base balance of the body. Potassium is also essential for normal heart function and body development. It stimulates the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles. The richest in potassium are spinach, potatoes, corn and parsley leaves.
Magnesium has a vasodilating effect, increases bile secretion. It participates in the metabolic process, promotes the conversion of sugars into energy, regulates muscle activity and the normal excitability of the nervous system.
Manganese is involved in protein and energy metabolism, activates some enzymes, affects the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, helps to obtain energy from food, and promotes the correct metabolism of sugars in the body. A lot of manganese is found in salad and spinach.
Copper is essential for the proper blood formation process. It promotes the absorption of iron by the body for the formation of hemoglobin. Unfortunately, it destroys vitamin C. The highest copper content in potatoes.
Iodine is important for thyroid hormones, which regulate cellular metabolism. A lot of iodine is in spinach.
Selenium together with vitamin E protects our body at the cellular level.
Zinc is essential for normal bone development and tissue repair. It promotes the absorption and activation of B vitamins. More zinc is found in spinach.
Such a valuable element as gold, which has a calming effect on the nervous system, is contained in a single plant - corn, and in the form of soluble and, therefore, assimilated compounds by our body.
Mineral substances of meat, fish and grain products in the process of digestion give acidic compounds. Vegetables, on the other hand, contain physiologically alkaline salts, which maintain in the body the ratio of acids and alkalis necessary for normal metabolism, as well as the alkaline reaction of the blood. To neutralize acidic substances accumulated in the human body in connection with the consumption of meat, fish, cheese, bread, various cereals, it is necessary to introduce alkaline reaction products with food. Especially a lot of alkaline salts in spinach, as well as cucumber, root vegetables, kohlrabi, beans, lettuce and potatoes, eggplants and even tomatoes.
By the way, the content of minerals in vegetables can be increased 3-10 times by applying appropriate fertilizers to the soil during the main dressing or in dressing (both root and foliar), as well as soaking seeds in the salts of these elements before sowing.
Vegetables and fruits are the main source of vitamins. In plants, they are part of enzymes and hormones, enhance photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen assimilation, the formation of amino acids and their outflow from leaves. In the human body, they serve as catalysts for biochemical reactions and regulators of the main physiological processes: metabolism, growth and reproduction.
Vitamin A (carotene) is a beauty vitamin. With its lack in the body, the hair and nails lose their shine, break, the skin peels off and acquires a grayish-earthy color, becomes dry. In the morning, droplets of a whitish substance collect in the corners of the eyes. This vitamin is essential for the growth of bones, tissues and normal vision. Most of the carotene is found in sorrel, red peppers, carrots and parsley leaves.
Vitamin B1 (thiamine) provides the body with energy for converting carbohydrates into glucose and embryonic development of the fetus. The largest amounts of this element are found in corn, potatoes, dill, parsley leaves, cauliflower and kohlrabi, green peas, beans, beans, asparagus and spinach.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) promotes the breakdown and absorption of fats, carbohydrates and proteins by the body, stimulates cell division and growth processes, and accelerates wound healing. They are rich in green peas, beans, beans.
Vitamin B6 is essential for the assimilation of proteins and fats, promotes the formation of red blood cells, and regulates the state of the nervous system.
Vitamin B12 participates in the synthesis of hemoglobin, the processes of hematopoiesis and regulation of the activity of the nervous system.
Biotin is involved in the assimilation of proteins and carbohydrates, affects the condition of the skin.
Choline (a B vitamin) helps the liver and kidneys function properly. He comes to us with vegetables such as spinach, cabbage.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) promotes wound healing, enhances the antitoxic, immuno-biological properties of the body, participates in redox processes, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, sharply reduces blood cholesterol, has a beneficial effect on the functions of the liver, stomach, intestines, endocrine glands, increases the body's resistance to scurvy and infectious diseases, helps maintain healthy teeth, bones, muscles, blood vessels, promotes tissue growth and repair, and wound healing. Lack of vitamin C causes pathological changes: decreased gastric secretion, exacerbation of chronic gastritis. The largest amount of ascorbic acid is found in horseradish, parsley leaves, sweet peppers and cabbage.
Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium and phosphorus to strengthen teeth and bones.
Vitamin E is needed for the normal formation of red blood cells, muscles and other tissues, it also ensures the normal breakdown of carbohydrates and the development of the fetus within the mother's body.
Vitamin P increases the elasticity and strength of small blood vessels. There is a lot of it in red pepper.
Nicotinic acid (RR) stimulates the work of the digestive system, accelerates the formation of amino acids, regulates redox processes and the functioning of the nervous system. The largest amounts of this vitamin are found in collard and savoy cabbage, green peas, potatoes, beans, corn, asparagus and champignons.
Pantothenic acid is essential for metabolism in the body, is involved in the conversion of fats, carbohydrates and proteins, and regulates blood sugar.
Folic acid contributes to the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow and normal metabolism. The main supplier of this vitamin is spinach.
In addition, vegetables also contain biologically active substances with antimicrobial action, i.e. antibiotics or phytoncides. They are especially abundant in onions, garlic, horseradish, radish, parsley, in the juice of cabbage, tomatoes, peppers and other vegetables, which are often used for medicinal purposes in this regard. They have bactericidal and fungicidal properties and are one of the factors of plant immunity. Getting into the human body with food, phytoncides disinfect living tissues, suppress the processes of putrefaction and fermentation in the intestines, and increase resistance to various diseases. Clearly expressed antimicrobial properties are noted in tomatoes, cabbage, red and green peppers, garlic, onions, horseradish, radish. The root, leaves and seeds of carrots, parsley and celery are also characterized by strong bactericidal properties.
Not all types of vegetable plants are equally rich in plant antibiotics, moreover, differences are observed even in the redistribution of one variety cultivated in different environmental conditions. For example, raw juice obtained from greenhouse-grown cabbage has weaker antimicrobial properties than field-grown cabbage juice.
Vegetables also contain enzymes - specific proteins that play the role of catalysts in the body.
The use of plants for the treatment of diseases and health promotion dates back to ancient times. The centuries-old folk experience of observations formed the basis of herbal medicine - the science of treating medicinal plants containing various biologically active substances: alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, essential and fatty oils, vitamins, phytoncides, organic acids, etc.
In Russia, the beginning of the treatment of diseases with plants refers to the hoary antiquity. At first, information about medicinal plants was spread orally. Our country ranks first in the world in terms of diversity and quantity of herbal medicines, and the vast experience accumulated by the peoples of our country in their use is part of the national culture. Despite the rapid development of chemistry, the intensive growth in the production of synthetic drugs, plants occupy an honorable place among medicines. In world practice, 40%, and in our country, more than 45% of drugs produced by the chemical and pharmaceutical industry are obtained from plants. Vegetable crops occupy a significant place among them.
For various diseases of internal organs and infectious diseases, various diets are used, which include a significant amount of raw and boiled vegetables.
Diet No. 2, prescribed for chronic gastritis with insufficient acidity and secretion, chronic colitis and enterocolitis, includes, along with other dishes, vegetable decoctions and grated side dishes from zucchini, beets, pumpkin, carrots, green peas, cabbage, potatoes.
For hypacid gastritis, carrots, beets, pumpkins, white zucchini, boiled and mashed potatoes are recommended; for achyllic gastritis - juices from fruits and vegetables, for peptic ulcer disease - mashed vegetable soups from carrots, potatoes, beets, raw vegetable juices (carrot, beetroot, cabbage). However, cabbage juice can irritate the stomach, increase the acidity of gastric juice, aggravate pain, so it should be used with caution.
For persons working with organochlorine pesticides, diet No. 4 is recommended, which contributes to the creation of a gentle regimen for the liver. It includes onions, beets, carrots, potatoes, cabbage, herbs.
Diet No. 5-a is indicated for Botkin's disease in the acute period, for chronic hepatitis and hepatocholecystitis, cholecystitis and angiocholytes. It consists of various foods, including vegetables, except for radishes, radishes, turnips, cabbage, peas, sorrel, spinach, onions, garlic, rutabagas; tomato juice is also recommended.
Diet No. 5, recommended for administration in case of Botkin's disease in the recovery stage, with cirrhosis of the liver, chronic hepatitis, cholecystitis and angiocholitis, includes, along with other products, onions after boiling, carrots, green peas and other vegetables recommended for diet No. 5-a.
Diet # 8, recommended for obesity, includes all vegetables, except those that contain a large amount of carbohydrates. For obese patients, foods with a high fiber content are recommended, which are slowly evacuated from the stomach and therefore create a feeling of fullness. These vegetables include turnips, radishes, rutabagas, fresh cucumbers and tomatoes, pea dishes, white cabbage and cauliflower, washed and fresh sauerkraut, lettuce, zucchini, carrots, beets, pumpkin, eggplants, etc. are allowed. Vegetables should prevail in the diet, unsweetened fruits high in potassium, alkaline elements and fiber.
Diet No. 9-a, indicated for the appointment with diabetes mellitus, requiring treatment with insulin, also includes carrots (200 g), cabbage (300 g), potatoes (300 g).
Diet No. 9, recommended for diabetes mellitus that does not require insulin treatment, also includes cabbage (300 g), rutabagas (300 g), carrots (200 g).
Diet No. 10-a, indicated for use in acute nephritis, chronic nephritis in an exacerbation stage, cardiovascular diseases with impaired blood circulation of the 2-3rd degree, includes raw vegetables and fruit juices: carrots, beets, cauliflower, green peas, tomatoes, cucumbers, lettuce, boiled and mashed potatoes; lettuce, fresh tomatoes and cucumbers, potatoes and green peas - in limited quantities. With diseases of the circulatory system and rheumatism, the diet should contain a sufficient amount of potassium while limiting sodium. From vegetables, beans, peas, carrots, cabbage are recommended.
Diet No. 10, indicated for the appointment in myocardial infarction, contains three diets. The first diet recommended in the acute period of the disease includes fresh grated carrots in the form of mashed potatoes, boiled cauliflower and other vegetables. The second diet, indicated for appointment in the subacute period of a heart attack, also includes vegetable soups, boiled and fresh vegetable dishes (carrots, beets, cauliflower, green salad, fresh cucumbers and tomatoes, celery, and potatoes in limited quantities). Diet -3, recommended during the scarring period, includes the same vegetables as diet -2 and, in addition, white squash, pumpkin, parsley, celery, dill, and potatoes.
In the treatment of patients with heart failure, it is necessary to strictly take into account the amount of sodium chloride administered with food and increase the potassium content in the blood, which decreases with insufficient blood circulation. Therefore, the diet should include foods rich in potassium. These are, first of all, vegetables and fruits: parsley, spinach, cabbage, horseradish, celery roots, turnips.
For chronic glumerunephritis from vegetables, carrots, tomatoes, unsalted cabbage, fresh cucumbers, vegetable juices, raw herbs are recommended; with chronic nephritis - various vegetables, with amyloidosis of the kidneys - vegetable juices, especially carrot; with uric acid diathesis - various vegetables, except for spinach, tomatoes, sorrel, rhubarb; with phosphaturia - various vegetables; with oxaluria - vegetables that do not contain oxalic acid (carrots, potatoes, cabbage).
In chronic pancreatitis, dishes and side dishes from vegetables are recommended: carrots, beets, boiled, mashed potatoes. For constipation, dishes and side dishes of vegetables are recommended: potatoes, carrots, zucchini, boiled and mashed pumpkin, boiled cauliflower with butter.
In the construction of diet therapy for croupous pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, exudative pleurisy, suppurative processes in the lungs, it is necessary to include raw and boiled vegetables and, especially, carrots with limited fluid and salt.
It is advisable to use deciduous greens of vegetable plants for anemia due to the relatively high copper content.
Roots contain many cell membranes that promote intestinal motility, therefore they are recommended for alimentary and neurogenic constipation, and the prevalence of alkaline elements determines their use in medical nutrition as anti-inflammatory agents. Of great interest is the presence in root crops of a significant amount of protopectin, which during cooking turns into pectin, which performs a protective function when working with heavy metals, and also promotes the elimination of cholesterol from the intestines. The activity of pectin depends on the level of galacturic acid content in it. There is a lot of pectin in radishes.
Due to the significant amount of potassium in root crops, they are used in medical nutrition for cardiovascular diseases with circulatory failure. Beets are high in betaine, which is a transitional step to choline. There is quite a lot of iron in beets and rutabagas, and cobalt in carrots, which is important when building a therapeutic diet in case of anemia. Supplementation with betaine in the diet prevents the development of fatty liver infiltration.
Tomatoes and eggplants contain significant amounts of iron (especially tomatoes) and copper, so they are included in diets to stimulate blood formation.
The high potassium content in potatoes with small amounts of sodium leads to its use in diet therapy for diseases of the kidneys and heart. Raw potato juice is used to treat peptic ulcers and gastritis, since potato proteins contain a pepsin inhibitor.
Vegetable juices are used as a natural choleretic agent. The strongest cholecystokinetic effect is possessed by beet juice in an amount of 200 ml, followed by carrot and cabbage juices. In terms of the strength of its influence on emptying the gallbladder, 200 ml of beet juice is close to the action of two raw egg yolks - one of the most powerful stimulators of the motor function of the gallbladder.
In case of hyposecretion and hepacid conditions of the stomach, it is advisable to use diluted vegetable juices (1:10), since they are quite strong causative agents of gastric secretion and at the same time, unlike whole juices, do not suppress the proteolytic activity of gastric juice.
Whole vegetable juices are advisable to use in hepacid conditions, because they have a neutralizing effect on gastric juice and sharply reduce its proteolytic activity. Whole vegetable juices, especially potato juices, can be recommended for heartburn.
For infectious diseases such as influenza, tonsillitis, scarlet fever, typhoid and others, it is useful for patients to give juices from carrots, white cabbage and cauliflower and fruits to quench their thirst and saturate the body with vitamins and other useful substances.
For diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, juices from carrots, tomatoes, potatoes, beets, cucumbers are effective, cabbage juice containing antiulcer vitamin U is especially effective.
For cardiovascular diseases, juices from carrots, peppers, cauliflower, lettuce and other vegetables are useful. Spinach, sauerkraut, celery are prohibited.
Regular use of vegetables in food throughout the year maintains health and performance. The lack of vitamins is especially felt in spring, when the amount of fresh vegetables in the diet is noticeably reduced. Raw vegetables are much richer in vitamins than boiled and harvested vegetables in the summer-autumn period. Sugar in vegetables, when pickled and pickled, is fermented to form lactic acid, which protects food from rotting. Lactic acid also destroys the walls of vegetables, which increases their absorption. Long-term cooking leads to the destruction of some of the vitamins; quick freezing and drying keep them safe. It has been noticed that sauerkraut does not contain vitamin B, vitamin C contains half as much, and carotene (provitamin A) is 10 times less than fresh.
Protective components such as salt, flour, substances containing starch, dextrin, phytoncides (onions, etc.) can inhibit the oxidation of vitamin C even in the presence of copper. When cooking vegetable dishes, it is recommended to first lay these products, and then the vegetables.