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Growing And Planting Tomato Seedlings, Bush Formation
Growing And Planting Tomato Seedlings, Bush Formation

Video: Growing And Planting Tomato Seedlings, Bush Formation

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Video: ★ How to: Grow Tomatoes from Seed (A Complete Step by Step Guide) 2023, February
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Growing tomato seedlings

growing tomatoes
growing tomatoes

It is extremely important to grow high quality seedlings, the sowing of which begins 40-65 days before planting in the ground.

It should be borne in mind that in early maturing low-growing varieties, the number of leaves before the first inflorescence is usually 7-8, and late-ripening tomatoes lay 10-12 leaves before the inflorescence. These leaves are laid at the point of growth of the seedling in the first 15-20 days of its life, at the end of this period the plant lays the rudiment of the inflorescence. Seedlings during this period have two or three true leaves.

The seedlings are ready to proceed to the laying of inflorescences, but on your windowsill until mid-March the plant is in insufficient illumination, which happens when sowing in February without additional illumination: the inflorescence is not laid, and the rudiments of leaves continue to appear at the growth point.

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In our northern zone, May and early June are a very risky time for tomatoes. If unfavorable conditions are formed (a sharp cold snap, light frost), the result may be a plant with an underdeveloped inflorescence that will not yield a crop. You will have to draw a conclusion about the timing of sowing and planting plants in the ground, based on the capabilities of your cultivation facility.

We have noticed that plants of the same varieties develop faster at later sowing and "catch up" with plants planted earlier. Usually, if the weather does not bring any surprises, then we sow tomatoes on March 15-25, planting in a greenhouse on May 5-15, the beginning of harvesting falls on July 15-20. But it is not too late to sow until April 10, for example, in the summer the period of growing seedlings is only 28-34 days.

It is noted that different varieties react differently to stress factors of the external environment. You have to keep this in mind when you get to know the characteristics of the variety, resistance to stress is a very useful property of the variety. And what is stress for plants is a sharp change in the external conditions of growth. Let's say you have outgrown seedlings, you plant them obliquely.

In the spring, the soil has not yet warmed up, the buried stem and root end up in a zone with an unfavorable temperature, while the vital activity of the cooled part of the plant slows down sharply, due to which there is a significant delay in growth, there is no need to talk about an early harvest. For example, during severe drought, some varieties are characterized by feeding a small number of fruits.

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Varieties react completely differently to overheating, low light and other stress factors. Tomato seedlings and seedlings are very demanding on the intensity of illumination. In our peasant farm, we take the usual soil for sowing seeds - a standard package of "Garden Land", mixed in half with river sand. The optimum temperature for growth and development, which we provide, is 20 … 25 ° C, the depth of seeding is 1.5 cm. After the emergence of seedlings, on the 5-6th day, the temperature is reduced to 17 … 18 ° C in the afternoon and 12 … 14 ° С at night. We make a pick when two real leaves appear, in a mixture of 1/4 part of sand and "Garden Land", and better - 1 part of agroperlite and 2 parts of "Garden Land", in any case, the acidity pH is 6-6.5.

We shade the cut seedlings for 2-3 days (from direct sunlight) and in the first week we maintain the temperature at 20 … 22 ° С, in cloudy weather - 15 … 16 ° С. Water as needed, rarely and in small portions. In irrigation water, if necessary, add soluble complex mineral fertilizers 2 g per 1 liter. We temper the seedlings 10-12 days before planting, gradually lowering the temperature day and night. When planting in the ground, we cover the roots with earth until the cotyledon leaves. We spray the planting holes from a spray bottle with a solution of Zircon 1 drop per 1 liter of water.

Planting tomato seedlings and caring for it

After planting - abundant watering, mulching with dry deoxidized peat, sawdust with a layer of 1 cm. Further, until the mass formation of fruits, moderate watering with the addition of mineral fertilizers to irrigation water (5 g per 10 liters of water). Two weeks after planting, we feed the tomato plants with complex mineral fertilizers, where nitrogen is at a minimum (20-30 g per 10 l of water and per m²).

In the future, the rate of fertilizers in top dressing, if necessary, is increased to 40-50 g. When applying fertilizers, it should be remembered that organic fertilizers are applied under the previous crop, with mineral dressings, the potassium rate should exceed the nitrogen rate by 2-2.5 times. If the soil is poorly refilled in the fall, then in the spring 10-15 kg of old humus, 20-50 g of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, 80-100 g of potash fertilizers are applied per 1 m².

Too high doses of nitrogen fertilizers cause strong growth and elongation of plants, and can delay fruiting. For example, moisture containing too much salt will not move along the roots of plants and can cause drought symptoms even if there is enough moisture. Thus, the soil should have an optimal ratio of all nutrients, in a concentration that does not depress the plant. It is better to correct it with irrigation water with low doses of mineral salts.

Tomato bush formation

growing tomatoes
growing tomatoes

Another necessary technique is the removal of leaves. To ensure good nutrient assimilation and growth, plants should always have at least 15 young, efficiently working leaves. Old and damaged leaves at the bottom of the plant are removed early in the growing season to improve air circulation and reduce the risk of gray mold infection from dense foliage, especially if the greenhouse is poorly ventilated. In the future, starting from the time when the fruits begin to ripen on the first brush, the removal of 2-3 leaves per week is considered normal.

You can read about the removal of stepchildren, the edging of a tomato (trimming the top before the expected last harvest) in any manual, and most importantly, this must be done - we are not in the south. More than six brushes of tomato on one plant in our area, in an ordinary amateur film greenhouse, is not always possible to get.

We prefer to plant indeterminate hybrids in our greenhouse. They are easy to form, leaving only the main shoot and removing all lateral stepsons, i.e. in one stem. Determinant varieties can be run in two stems. Tomato, as a light-loving culture, develops well under prolonged intense sunlight. Do not plant densely, especially in a greenhouse: no more than 2-3 plants per m². With a lack of light, carbon dioxide from the air is absorbed slowly, the growth and development of plants slow down.

In general, it is better to plant several modern, intense hybrids in the greenhouse with good potential for reclaiming the space of the upper tier than many low-growing plants that shade each other, which often leads to their disease with gray rot. As I already noted, talking about the vegetative and generative trends in tomato development, their balance is important.

A balance of generative and vegetative development is achieved by regulating temperature, humidity, ventilation, lighting, the number of leaves and fruits on the plant, as well as the content of available nutrients in the soil. In order to lay a good foundation for balanced productivity, you first need to get a strong plant. Therefore, at the beginning of cultivation, a stake is placed on vegetative development. With proper development, it is considered normal to form one new brush per week and three leaves between the brushes. The tops of normally developing plants should be of appropriate thickness and shape and be slightly purple (purple) in color.

At the beginning of the day in healthy plants, the leaves should be erect (not drooping), and by the end of the day - twisted, which will indicate that the plant has been actively involved in vital processes all day. Excessive vegetative development of plants is common in many gardeners. It is characterized by poor setting and relatively few fruits per plant.

Very large, "royal" fruits can also be found. Leaves or side shoots may form at the top of the brush. Stems are more densely pubescent. In this case, it is necessary to stimulate the generative principle in the plant. This is ensured by an increase in the difference between day and night temperatures: 25 ° C during the day, 16 ° C at night, as well as a decrease in the relative humidity of the air by increasing ventilation, but not below 65%, so as not to reduce the pollination efficiency.

Besides the usual removal of leaves at the bottom of the plant, you can remove a small leaf from the top of the plant. It also helps to increase soil nutrients through phosphorus and potassium. It is good in such a situation to add furnace ash to the soil - a glass per bush.

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