Actually, all peas are vegetable, but they have two types: sugar and shelling. Peas are grown in large quantities by agricultural enterprises.
He produces beans, which we buy whole or crushed in stores and use to make pea soups and purees. This species has a leathery parchment layer on the inside of the scapula that cannot be chewed, therefore only grains are eaten - juicy green or ripe dry.
Sugar pea blades do not have a parchment layer, so these blades are young and juicy - you can eat them whole or cook some dishes from them. They are especially tasty when small juicy grains are formed inside. I remember how in childhood I ran to the bed of peas, tore off wide unripe shoulder blades and gladly ate them up to the stalk. They were amazingly delicious. The villagers clearly distinguished the two types of peas. The one that grew up on the collective farm field is short, with hard shoulder blades - they called it - peas.
And the one that they grew in their garden - tall, held on props, it was mainly like a delicacy for children and adults, was called "wine-growing". His seeds were cherished and shared with family and friends. After ripening, the seeds of this pea are always larger than the store pea, but they differed in that they were not perfectly round, but had dents-wrinkles on the surface of the grain. It was difficult to collect such seeds for soup, because the blades of peas were eaten with appetite while still young and juicy. The main thing was to save a few dozen shoulder blades until ripening in order to harvest the beans for spring sowing.
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By the way, peas are cold-resistant culture, they can be sown early, and for regular production of green peas for canning or freezing, you can sow them at several times, or use varieties with different ripening periods. They are early maturing (55 days after germination), mid-early (65 days), mid-maturing (75 days), mid-late (85 days) and late-ripening (90-100 days).
Grains-beans are sown in early spring on beds prepared in autumn, on the sunny side of the site to a depth of 4-5 cm. It is advisable to fill the beds with rotted organic matter, then the yield will be higher. Sowing pattern: 15x30 cm. After sowing, it is advisable to cover the bed with a film or spunbond, which will provide a better temperature regime, preserve moisture in the soil. The film will help and protect the seedlings from birds, which willingly peck out hatched or shallowly sown grains.
Green peas, which we buy frozen in supermarkets or in cans, are unripe from shelling varieties. Young beans are the same green sweet peas. If you grow enough of it, you can freeze sweet peas or use it in cooking. And sugar varieties are good unripe - this is a delicacy for children. Plus, juicy sugar pea scoops can be cooked just like asparagus beans. They can be boiled in boiling water and then fried in oil. This will make a delicious side dish.
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Now there are many different varieties of shelling and sugar peas. Most of them require the installation of supports or a garter, because the plants are tall and cannot support their weight. But there are already peeling varieties that can grow without support. These are Petite-Provencal and Afilla varieties.
This is what the seed producers of the first grade say: “A yielding early-maturing dwarf variety of foreign-bred peas. The period from germination to harvest is 55-60 days. The plant is bushy, undersized, 40-45 cm high. It is grown without support. Pods 8 cm long, dark green, spiky. Green peas are small, juicy and sweet. Used in home cooking, canning and freezing. It is characterized by a high protein content”.
And this is about Afilla: “Late-ripening variety of shelling peas, characterized by the complete absence of leaves. The foliage is transformed into a mustache, intertwining and supporting the plant. This feature allows you to grow these peas without supports. The plant is 50-55 cm high. The beans are dark green, large. Each pod contains 6-9 sweet peas. Suitable for raw use, canning and freezing."
When sowing peas of these varieties, experts recommend putting two peas in each hole, then they will be more stable, supporting each other, and no support is required.
Other popular shelling varieties: Pobeditel, Early May, Mergert, Chudo Kelvedon. They need support.
And here is a description of the sugar variety Sugar buddy: “Medium late (49-60 days from full sprouting to the beginning of the collection of beans) sugar variety. The plant is 70-80 cm long. The bob is straight, with a pointed tip, without a parchment layer, long (7-9 cm). 7-9 peas are tied in each bean. The walls of the beans are thick, fleshy, and have a sweet taste without any hard tissues. Recommended for fresh unripe beans. Dessert shovels with juicy seeds are a valuable dietary product rich in proteins, sugars, starch, vitamins and carotene. Garter required."
Other popular sugar varieties: Children's Sweet, Friendly Family, Ambrosia, Inexhaustible, Zhegalova, Sugar Brain. They all need support.
Experts recommend not to overexpose on the plant and regularly pluck pea blades that have reached the desired condition - in shell peas - they have formed juicy sweet grains, in sugar peas - they have formed a thick juicy shoulder. Then the plant will form more and more new blades. If you overexpose the shoulder blades, they will dry out and dry out, and the seeds will become tough, then the plant will stop vegetating, because it has fulfilled its main function - it formed beans for seeds. Therefore, if you want to get tasty grains or shoulder blades longer, pluck them in time, without overexposing.
And one more important point: any pea, like all legumes, synthesizes nitrogen from the air and accumulates it on the roots in the nodules with the help of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. As a result, the soil in the beds where these crops grew is enriched with nitrogen. Experts recommend that all pea stalks, after harvest, be chopped and embedded in the soil as organic fertilizer.
Photo by Olga Rubtsova