Video: Harvest Components: Use Of Hybrids And Control Of Plant Diseases
Tomato hybrid Lancelot F1
In recent years, the climate has changed markedly - sometimes an abnormally hot summer, sometimes an unusually cold and rainy one. As a result, gardeners have a lot of problems. Let's try to figure out what can be done with this in the conditions of a separately taken country house.
Not all varieties of vegetables can withstand the peculiarities of the new era, and, as a result, new plant diseases. New pathogens began to show "universalism" and went on to develop in many cultures. Even crop rotation has ceased to be a factor that breaks the chain of infection transmission. Various new forms of bacteriosis have appeared.
When plants are damaged by bacteriosis, symptoms of nitrogen, magnesium starvation or iron deficiency often occur; external signs of bacteriosis can be disguised as symptoms of viral or fungal diseases.
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Phytobacteriologist AM Lazarev noted the ability of pathogens to accumulate in the soil, plant residues, seeds to a certain critical level, in order to then, under certain conditions, cause a sharp drop in yield. And all this happens due to the fact that there is little high-quality organic matter in the soil; it has lost the ability to self-purify from pollutants.
What to do? It is clear - to saturate our soil with good organic matter. To some extent, you can resist "progress" by using this progress. You can pick up resistant hybrids of vegetables that can withstand pathogenic biota. Sow only reliable seeds treated with thiram and insecticidal preparations from the neonicotinoid group.
Professional precision seeds undergo additional processing, including protection against insects and fungal diseases. But with seeds hulled from imported store-bought peppers, tomatoes or Egyptian food potatoes, you can bring such infections to your site that it will be very difficult to get rid of.
Plant immunity to harmful organisms (phytoimmunity) differs from the immunity of animals, which is due to the use of antibodies. In plants, each cell has all the necessary functions to create an integral organism, including immune ones. It is clear that only the creation of resistant specimens among huge populations made it possible to create, by selection, disease-resistant heterotic hybrids.
Therefore, such hybrids should be given preference in our conditions. Before planting this or that variety, pay attention to its resistance to diseases, stress factors, light, temperature, early maturity. Modern hybrids have many remarkable properties. If you make the right choice, you will have much less problems and you can get a good harvest in any weather.
The world of pathogenic bacteria "competes" with breeders, therefore it is necessary to increase the biological activity of the soil on the site both by introducing organic fertilizers and processing it with microbial preparations with the function of suppressing pathogens of fungal and bacterial nature. There are many different biological products on the market now.
In addition to direct suppression of harmful microflora, they contribute to the release of phytoalexins by plants, which leads to an increase in the immunity of growing crops. One can also name trichodermin, verticillin, boverin, pentaphage-C, hapsin, new biological preparations are also on sale.
But you need to understand that microbiological preparations do not replace organic matter, they only improve its quality. On the contrary, without proper nutrition, in stressful situations, beneficial bacteria, fungi begin to compete with plant roots, take nutrients from them, weaken the plant, and then perform the function of parasites on the weakened plant along with pathogenic organisms. Therefore, the "smart" roots of the plant secrete substances that attract symbionts not constantly, but during the periods of spring growth of roots, foliage, during periods of fruit filling, during periods of deficiencies of certain substances.
Epiphytic microorganisms live on the surface of the leaves, feeding on plant secretions. To a certain extent, they inhibit the activation of pathogenic microorganisms and prevent the development of infection. However, some of them, when plants weaken, begin to parasitize on them. Thus, it is necessary to use biological preparations during periods of active growth of roots, leaf apparatus, fruits against the background of the supply of complete mineral and organic food. And only when needed!
Most pathogenic bacteria have an optimal growth temperature from 28 o C to 36 o C. Therefore, even with a slight temperature rise of +28 o C, the specific resistance of plants to many diseases is suppressed. That is why overheating in greenhouses is so dangerous, and therefore it is necessary to select hybrids that can maintain immunity in extreme conditions.
If we turn to the practice of our gardeners, then very often it happens that during the ripening of tomato fruits in our climatic zone, the weather deteriorates: the amount of light decreases, the humidity rises, night temperatures are quite low. In fruits, the process of formation of growth substance is slowed down, which ensures the ripening of fruits. In this case, you can use the drug "Dosrevatel", it accelerates the ripening of brown, unripe fruits, increases their mass, and at the same time accelerates the growth of still green fruits.
Modern heterotic hybrids are quite reliable, but agrotechnical care techniques must be correctly followed. For example, pinching speeds up the ripening of a tomato by 10-17 days. Removing young leaves immediately after their appearance, starting from the third and higher, accelerates the flowering of the tomato by 7 days. Removing mature leaves delays flowering. Removing young leaves in late-ripening varieties accelerates flowering by 7 days, and in early-maturing varieties - only by 1-2 days.
Strengthening the phosphorus nutrition of plants shortens the growing season. Tomato plants, which received an increased dose of phosphorus at the beginning of the appearance of the 4th leaf, begin to ripen 4 days earlier. But it should also be borne in mind that increased phosphorus nutrition leads to iron deficiency, so you need to not forget about trace elements.
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It is possible to correct the negative factors of weather conditions by foliar dressing of mineral fertilizers, they provide a quick replenishment of the plant's needs for macro- and microelements in case of waterlogging of the soil, at its low temperature.
Nowadays there are many modern mineral dressings on sale, but it is desirable that the microelements included in them are in a chelated form (in this form, a metal atom is associated with two or more atoms of organic matter). This is because chelates not only provide the availability of micronutrients, but also facilitate the absorption of micronutrients by the leaves.
The movement in the tissues of most trace elements, as well as calcium, occurs with an upward flow of water. Therefore, a decrease in transpiration (evaporation of water by a plant) leads to the fact that trace elements and calcium cannot reach the tops of plants or fruits. This is where deficiency symptoms usually appear. One of the reasons for the top rot of tomato and pepper is an insufficient supply of calcium to the top of the fruit when the microclimate is disturbed (excessive or insufficient air humidity, high or low temperature).
If it is impossible to maintain the required parameters in amateur greenhouses, foliar feeding is carried out, for example, with fertilizers containing boron and calcium. But it must be remembered that the increased concentration of boron inhibits the plants, therefore, the concentration of the solution should not be increased above 0.05%. Boron enhances the action of manganese, zinc and magnesium, but is an antagonist of copper, which, in turn, in an excess in an acidic medium, delays nitrogen absorption.
Molybdenum inhibits the absorption of manganese, copper, favorably affecting the absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, potassium and magnesium. Plants may be deficient in copper when it gets hot. All this must be taken into account. To carry out top dressing, you need a good sprayer, you need a "nutrient mist", only then the plant receives nutrition through the leaves.
Read the next part. Harvest components: the use of biostimulants →
Vladimir Stepanov, Doctor of Biological Sciences
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