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Video: Disinfection Of Greenhouses For The New Season
For a harvest of capricious "southerners"
Peppers grow in a greenhouse
In our harsh Ural climate, the season begins in greenhouses and hotbeds, where the most enthusiastic gardeners carry out sowing and planting in early spring, when there is still snow throughout the site. This is not easy, because the real heat is still far away, and the soil has not thawed normally even in greenhouses (there is no question of greenhouses), but it is quite real. True, it will take some effort to prepare greenhouses for the new season.
Of course, preparations should have begun in the fall. And the point is not only in the excessive workload in the spring. There are a number of other reasons to consider.
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Firstly, the presence in the greenhouse soil of a variety of pathogenic microorganisms and pests that invariably appear during the growing season. It is now possible to find greenhouses free of such problems only in very remote and practically abandoned villages - throughout the rest of the territory, diseases and pests are developing at an increasingly frightening rate. Therefore, mandatory disinfection of greenhouse areas is required. It is advisable to carry it out in the fall, but if you did not have time to do this, then you can disinfect it in the spring, but in this case you will have to forget about early crops in greenhouses.
Secondly, it is in the fall that it is easier to carry out a number of works on the preliminary formation of a new greenhouse soil. Indeed, it is at the end of the season that there are many various organic residues on the site. They need to be stored somewhere - so why not in a greenhouse? And in the spring they carry out the final laying of the soil. At the same time, if necessary, additional fertilizers are introduced and the ridges are prepared. This is a general outline of the preparation of greenhouses, details are below …
We disinfect greenhouses
At the very first application of the soil, it usually does not contain pathogens (if this soil was not brought from a nearby state farm, with a profit for itself getting rid of the used soil from its own greenhouses). This is especially true for peat-based soils, since fresh peat is sterile. Repeated use of the same soil will already be dangerous, except for cases when the plants in the first year were not affected by diseases and pests. Unfortunately, this situation is not common due to the high prevalence of both. Here, only residents of remote villages can be lucky, who, due to isolation from civilization, have not yet been able to get the entire list of pathogens in full. Everyone else has to partially or even completely replace the soil and disinfect the greenhouses.
If the spread of diseases and pests in the past season turned out to be small, and among them there were no particularly dangerous ones (for example, phytophthora), then you can limit yourself to a partial replacement of the soil - remove its surface layer (up to 10 cm). Otherwise, complete replacement of the soil is indispensable. The soil extracted from the greenhouse is piled up, sprinkled with dry bleach layer by layer (250 g of bleach per 1 square meter of the stack with a layer of 20 cm) and left for disinfection for 3-4 years. If desired, this soil, if there are no late blight and black leg pathogens in it, as well as, for example, nematodes and ticks, can be used even in spring - in open ground for crops that do not suffer from pests present in this soil.
Since the spores of pathogens and some pests, in particular, spider mites, winter calmly in hotbeds and greenhouses, disinfection of the structures themselves is additionally necessary. The safest and easiest way to do such disinfection is to use bleach. To do this, after partial or complete removal of the soil, the inner and outer surfaces of the heifer (including the frames) are sprayed with bleach infusion. The solution is prepared 2-4 hours before use by stirring 400 g of bleach in 10 liters of water. After insisting, the settled liquid is carefully drained and used for spraying? and the sediment is used to brush the wooden parts of the greenhouse with a brush. In this case, you need to try to ensure that the solution penetrates as deeply as possible into all the slots in the structure.
In addition to chemical treatment of greenhouses, it is necessary to mechanically destroy mosses and lichens on the logs at the base of the greenhouse and treat all wooden surfaces in the greenhouse with a 5% solution of ferrous sulfate to destroy their spores.
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We start forming a new soil
Of course, you can leave the greenhouse soil completely intact and plant the usual crops on it again next season. By the way, this is exactly what my observations indicate, the overwhelming majority of ordinary gardeners. In principle, in the absence of various pathogenic microorganisms and pests in the greenhouse soil (which is completely unbelievable), this approach is quite acceptable, however, provided that nightshade crops (tomatoes, eggplants and peppers) are transferred to a greenhouse occupied in the previous season with cucumbers and vice versa, which easily solves the problem of soil fatigue. True, there can be no question of any early sowing and planting in this case, since in the absence of specially stored organic matter in the soil, it will not warm up soon. Therefore, we will go the other way.
Since in our case it is assumed that the disinfection of greenhouses is a mandatory condition, and it was carried out in the fall (which means that part of the soil was removed), we will have to form a new soil, and preferably on the basis of organic residues, in order to achieve its warming up to one degree or another. … Of course, there are other types of greenhouse heating, but they are expensive and more difficult to implement technically, so most gardeners are forced to resort to using biofuels.
The constituent components of such a greenhouse soil may be different, but the resulting soil should be breathable, retain moisture well and be optimally filled with nutrients.
Formation of ordinary soil
There are many options for such soils. Which one to choose depends on the available organic materials. Pre-prepared organic-mineral compost is best suited for refueling.
If such compost is not available, then you can, for example, take a mixture of four parts of loamy soil, three parts of dung or plant humus and three parts of peat, or six parts of loamy soil and four parts of humus. It is useful to additionally introduce such loosening materials as bark, straw cutting or sawdust into the composition of the soil, the proportion of which can be up to 10-30%. However, you should be aware that adding straw to the soil entails an increase in the amount of nitrogen fertilizers applied, required for its decomposition. For example, when adding 100 kg of straw, 800-1000 g of urea are additionally introduced. A similar picture is observed when using fresh sawdust, to which you will have to add urea at the rate of 200 g of fertilizer for three buckets of sawdust, so it is better to give preference to stale sawdust.
After the formation of ridges per 1 square meter of area, an additional glass of wood ash and complex mineral fertilizer, for example, Kemira, are added in accordance with the norms recommended by the manufacturer, and the soil is thoroughly loosened.
Read part 2. Formation of warm soil in the greenhouse