Table of contents:

Lovage, Lavender, Hyssop, Perennial Marjoram
Lovage, Lavender, Hyssop, Perennial Marjoram
Video: Lovage, Lavender, Hyssop, Perennial Marjoram
Video: Растение анисового иссопа и проблемы с садовым оленем 2023, February
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Fragrant garden bed. Part 2

Read the previous part of the article: Thyme, mint, lemon balm. Spice planting patterns

In the spring, when nature wakes up from hibernation, you want to go out in the early May morning to the garden and pick a fragrant mint leaf for making an invigorating tea or a lovage stalk for a spring vitamin salad. In nature, there are many perennial plants that grow quickly in early spring, which can make up a fragrant garden bed - useful and beautiful even in the Northwest.

Lovage
Lovage

Lovage

A perennial plant of the celery family - lovage, reaching a height of two meters. The stem is erect, hollow, branching at the top. The leaves are large, dark green, shiny, double and triple pinnate, with a peculiar smell reminiscent of celery. Flowers are small, yellowish, collected in umbrella-shaped inflorescences. The fruit is a two-seed. The mass of a thousand seeds is four grams. The rhizome is thick, brown, up to forty centimeters long.

The homeland of lovage is the mountainous regions of southern Europe and Iran. In the wild, this plant is found in the European part of Russia and the Caucasus. Lovage, as a spicy culture, is used in the national cuisines of Europe and North America. Lovage winters well in the northern regions and produces greens early, growing in spring. The plant is cold-resistant and frost-resistant. In the first year of life, it forms a large rosette of basal leaves, and from the second year it starts flowering.

Lovage is usually cultivated by sowing seeds in the ground, by seedling or dividing a bush. It is grown in one place for five to six years. Caring for this crop consists in periodic loosening of row spacings, weeding, watering during dry periods and fertilizing with mineral fertilizers.

In Russia it was called “love-herb” or “medicinal dawn”, using it as a medicine and as a love potion. The leaves of this plant contain an essential oil that consists of terpineol, cineole and carvacrol, sesquiterpenes. In all parts of the plant there are also acetic, isovaleric, butyric and benzoic acids, phytoncides, mineral salts, carotene and vitamins C, B and P. Furocoumarins, lecithin, resins and gums are found in the roots. Roots, herbs and fruits are used as medicinal raw materials. In autumn, the roots are harvested by washing them in cold water, cutting them into small pieces, drying them in the shade and drying them in the oven at a temperature of 25 … 300C. Leaves, along with petioles and flowering shoots, are usually dried in the shade, in a ventilated room. Leaves retain their medicinal properties for one year, and rhizomes and fruits for two years,when stored in a tightly closed glass container.

Lovage is widely used in folk medicine: the root has a tonic effect on the gastrointestinal tract, improves appetite, relieves stomach cramps, stimulates bile secretion, and reduces nervous excitability. Decoction of the root treats purulent wounds and skin diseases, it serves to strengthen the hair. This plant has antihelminthic properties. In folk medicine, fresh leaves are applied to the head to relieve headaches. Lovage is used fresh and dried instead of celery for salads, soups, meat sauces, marinades, pickling cucumbers and tomatoes. Young stems and roots are used for flavoring confectionery products, flavoring bitter liqueurs, medicines and perfumes. Succulent petioles are candied and consumed as candied fruits.

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Lavender
Lavender

Lavender

A perennial plant of the family of the lamines - Lavender. In nature, it is an evergreen shrub with a height of 20 to 100 cm with numerous uplifting, branchy shoots that are woody at the base. Leaves are oblong-linear, whole with edges turned inward, young ones are tomentose-pubescent. The flowers are blue or purple in 6-10 false whorls, collected in intermittent-spike inflorescences. The fruit is black-brown, smooth, shiny nut (there are one thousand seeds in 1 g). Lavender is one of the most ancient aromatic plants. It is most widespread in the south of Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia, the Crimea and the Caucasus.

Lavender is relatively thermophilic, photophilous, drought-resistant and not demanding on soils (the exception is heavy clay soils with a high groundwater table). The only drawback of this plant is its low winter hardiness, and therefore, in the conditions of the Northwest, lavender requires shelter for the winter with a spruce leg. To obtain vegetable greens, domestic varieties are used - B-34, Record, Stepnaya 197, and for decorative purposes, mainly foreign varieties - Munstead strain (50 cm high) and Normandy (50 cm high, annual plant).

This culture is propagated in three ways: by sowing seeds in the ground, by growing seedlings and vegetatively (dividing a bush or cuttings). The plant can grow in one place for up to fifteen years. The main care consists in periodic loosening and weeding from weeds.

Currently, lavender is used as an ornamental plant (on alpine slides and mixborders). Lavender is an excellent melliferous plant, whose honey has healing properties that increase human immunity to various diseases. Lavender essential oil is widely used in the perfumery, cosmetic, soap industry and medicine. Dried lavender inflorescences are used as a means of fighting moths, as a perfume for linen. Fresh leaves are used in food as a spice seasoning, added to salads, sauces, fish and meat dishes, as well as to flavor drinks and oils.

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Hyssop
Hyssop

Hyssop

A perennial plant of the family of lacustrine - Hyssop. Stem 40-70 cm high, erect, branched. The leaves are small, almost sessile, lanceolate. The flowers are small, blue, lilac, pink or white, located 3-7 in the axils of the leaves and collected in spike-shaped inflorescences. The fruit is triangular, oblong-ovate nutlet.

Hyssop is cold-resistant, drought-resistant and not picky about soil fertility, but grows best on light soils, with moderate moisture.

Hyssop is propagated by sowing seeds in the ground, seedlings and vegetatively. Seeds are sown to a depth of 0.3-1 cm with row spacing of 50 cm, in rows - after 20-30 cm. Seedlings appear 8-14 days after sowing.

Hyssop leaves have a tart, spicy taste, contain essential oils and bactericidal substances. Fresh and dried leaves are used as a spicy seasoning for salads, soups, sauces, meat and vegetable main courses. Finely chopped greens of hyssop are flavored with mayonnaise, added to the curd.

Essential oils of hyssop are used in the alcoholic beverage and perfumery industries.

Perennial marjoram

Perennial rhizomatous plant of the Yaroslav family. Stem 30-60 cm high, straight, branched at the base, sometimes purple-colored. The leaves are petiolate, oblong or oblong-ovate with a jagged edge. The flowers are purple or lilac-pink, collected in inflorescences - a spreading corymbose panicle. The fruit is small, round, blunt-triangular, brown nut.

Marjoram leaves are rich in vitamins, essential oils. They are used in the perfumery, food industry, in the alcoholic beverage industry, for the preparation of kvass and as a spicy seasoning for the first and second courses, salads, and also added when salting and canning vegetables.

Marjoram is a good honey plant and can be used for decorative purposes in the garden.

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