Table of contents:
- The vegetable garden of Peter I, from which the potatoes began their march across Russia
- The best varieties for the Northwest:
Video: Potato Varieties For The Northwest
The vegetable garden of Peter I, from which the potatoes began their march across Russia
The homeland of the "second" bread, beloved by all Russians - potatoes - is South America, the Andes, where its wild species are still found in the mountains. It was first brought to Europe (Spain) in the second half of the 16th century by the conquistadors, who, along with the stolen gold and silver, brought potato tubers as food.
Long before the appearance of Europeans, Indian tribes used this plant for food. Until the first half of the 18th century, potatoes were little known. It was considered a delicacy in those days, and only wealthy people could use it. In those days, potato flowers were more often used - for the manufacture of boutonnieres, which adorned hats, hairstyles and dresses.
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According to legend, Peter the Great brought potatoes to Russia and planted tubers in the garden in Strelna, near the Wooden Palace. At that time, potatoes were considered a very exquisite dish, and they were served only at the royal table, and sprinkled with powdered sugar, not salt.
Beginning in 1765, during the reign of Empress Catherine II, this vegetable became widespread throughout the entire Russian Empire. Today we can no longer imagine our table without traditional potato dishes. The tubers of this culture, on average, contain up to 18% of easily digestible starch, up to 2.5% of high-quality proteins, 1% of fiber, 0.3% of fat, up to 1% of mineral salts, carotene, vitamins C, B 1, B 2, B 6, PP, K. Potatoes are a light-loving culture, they are picky about soil fertility, therefore, the following conditions are necessary for their cultivation: the soil must have a deep arable layer, rich in humus and neutral acidity.
To create these conditions, organic fertilizers are introduced in the fall (manure - 4-5 kg / m²; mineral fertilizers: superphosphate - 15–20 g / m²; potassium sulfate - 20–25 g / m² and dolomite flour - 20–25 g / m²).
Before planting, tubers are usually germinated at a temperature of + 15 … 16 ° C for five weeks. Favorable for planting are conditions when the soil has time to warm up to a depth of 8–10 cm and at the same time its temperature will be at least + 7 ° С. When planting, you can additionally add 50–80 g of wood ash or Kemir-potato fertilizer to each hole at the rate of 15–17 g per hole.
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Tubers are placed in a row at a distance of 25-30 cm with a row spacing of 60 cm - for early varieties; for mid- and late-ripening varieties, the planting density is 30–35 cm and the row spacing is 70 cm. During the growing season, potatoes need hilling: the first of them is carried out when the sprouts reach a height of 10–12 cm; the second - at a stem height of 15–20 cm. Finish the processing of row spacings by the time the plants close. Harvesting of early-ripening potato varieties begins in mid-July, mid- and late-ripening - in August, September.
To obtain a stable and high yield of potatoes, it is necessary to have a healthy varietal planting material. To select tubers in your area, pay attention to those plants that developed well during the growing season and gave the highest yield per bush. It is from these bushes of potatoes that tubers (weighing 50–80 g) are set aside for seeds. Since we cannot predict the weather conditions of the current season, we need to plant at least two or three varieties to ensure a stable harvest.
Potatoes can be grown in one place for 3-5 years, but remember that they should not be planted after nightshade crops (peppers, tomatoes, eggplants). To improve the soil after harvesting on the beds where the potatoes grew, you can sow winter rye with green fertilizer. Below are the characteristics of some of the most productive varieties that give good results when grown in our gardens. All of them in different years were grown in the beds near the Palace of Peter I in Strelna. Last season, we grew in our garden the varieties Naiada, Charodey, Pamyati Osipova, Sudarushka, the seeds of which were presented to us by the scientists of Belogorki. The crop of tubers in our beds in the past hot summer was very good.
The best varieties for the Northwest:
Sorcerer (zoned since 2000). Medium early variety, white tubers, weighing 80-120 grams. The tubers contain 18-22% starch and have an excellent taste. When cooked, they are semi-crumbly. The pulp is white. Marketability 92–95%. This variety is not afraid of breaking off the sprouts; tubers are not "detached". Their keeping quality is good.
The variety is resistant to cancer and viroid, moderately resistant to macrosporiosis, common scab, viral diseases. It is highly resistant to late blight. Its root system is so powerful that even in drought conditions it allows plants of this variety to remain green, maintaining a good turgor. The Sorcerer variety blooms very profusely, and its large white flowers have a pleasant smell.
League. Early variety, versatile, high-yielding. Starch - 16-19%. The taste is excellent. The variety is resistant to cancer, golden potato nematode; relatively resistant to late blight, common scab, viral diseases. The tubers are white, oval (very beautiful), the eyes are very small. The pulp is slightly creamy. The keeping quality of tubers is good. They are suitable for making chips. Since 2005, the variety has been undergoing the State Variety Test.
Story(zoned since 2004). This variety also has a medium early maturation of tubers. Its average yield is about 400 c / ha. The marketability of tubers is 85–88%. The taste of this variety is very good. The starch content in tubers is 14–17%. The variety is resistant to cancer, moderately resistant to macrosporiosis, common scab and viral diseases. Possesses a very high degree of resistance to late blight. A distinctive feature of the Skazka variety is its multi-tuberity - it can produce up to 30 or more tubers from each potato bush. Although the size of these tubers and, accordingly, the yield is highly dependent on the growing conditions. This variety prefers light loamy and sandy loamy soils, developed peatlands. Doesn't like excessive moisture. Under favorable conditions, it can give a high yield when grown even from small tubers. In Skazka, the tubers are round-oval, white with pink spots of various shapes around the eyes. The eyes are small, red. The pulp is white.
The bush is upright, of medium height. The flowers are pale lilac with white tips.
Scarlet sail is a medium early, versatile variety. It is high-yielding - 400-500 c / ha, high-starchy - 18.5-23.3%. The taste is excellent; when boiled, these potatoes are semi-crumbly. Its pulp is creamy. The variety is resistant to cancer, golden potato nematode, late blight, relatively resistant to common scab, viral diseases. Its tubers are intensely pink, very beautiful, oval, the eyes are small. The keeping quality of tubers is good. They are suitable for making puree from them. Since 2007, the variety is being prepared for transfer to the State Variety Test.
Danae is a medium-early multi-purpose variety, high-yielding - it gives 400–500 c / ha. The starch content in tubers is 15–18%. The taste of the tubers is excellent. The pulp is slightly creamy. The variety is resistant to cancer, golden potato nematode, relatively resistant to late blight, common scab, viral diseases. Its tubers are short-oval, slightly flattened, white. The eyes are very small. The keeping quality of tubers is good. The variety is suitable for making chips.
Naiad (zoned since 2004). Mid-season variety for universal use. It has excellent taste, boiled tubers are crumbly, with white flesh. The starch content in tubers in some years reaches 25%. Productivity 350-470 kg / ha. The variety is resistant to cancer, golden potato nematode, relatively resistant to late blight, common scab, viral diseases. The keeping quality of tubers is good. He has white oval tubers, small eyes. The variety is suitable for making chips and for mashed potatoes.
Inspiration (zoned since 2006). Medium early grade. Dining room. Has a high yield - 500-600 c / ha. The starch content in tubers is 14–19%. Its tubers taste very good. Their flesh is white, dense, not darkening when cut. The variety is resistant to cancer, golden potato nematode, to late blight; resistance is above average, relatively resistant to common scab; poorly resistant to rhizoctonia, viral diseases. Its tubers are white, long. The eyes are very small. The keeping quality of tubers is good.
Peter's Riddle (zoned since 2005). Mid-season variety for table use. High-yielding - up to 450-550 kg / ha. Has good taste. The starch content in tubers is up to 14-19%. The variety is resistant to cancer, highly resistant to late blight, rhizoctonia, relatively resistant to common scab, viral diseases, macrosporiosis. The keeping quality of tubers is good. Tubers are oval, very beautiful, pink, eyes are small, red.
Charm is a mid-season universal variety. It is high-yielding - 400-500 kg / ha. The starch content in tubers is 17–21%. The taste of the tubers is excellent; when cooked, they are semi-crumbly. The pulp is slightly yellow, does not darken when cut. The variety is resistant to cancer, golden potato nematode; relatively resistant to late blight, viral diseases, common scab. The tubers are yellow, very beautiful, round-oval, the eyes are very small. The pulp is creamy, does not darken when cut. The keeping quality of tubers is good. These potatoes are suitable for making mashed potatoes as well as making chips. Since 2006 the State Variety Test has been taking place.
I wish all gardeners good harvests in the new season!