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Video: Parsnips (Pastinaca), Or White Carrots, Features, Sowing, Care, Harvesting, Recipes
It's time to return a tasty and healthy vegetable parsnip to Russian vegetable gardens
As you know, everyone grows carrots, but its close relative, parsnips, which are sometimes called white carrots (they look very much like carrots, but have a yellowish-white root crop), are now found only in some gardeners. Moreover, even in the literature, it is often referred to as purely fodder crops.
At the same time, this root vegetable used to enjoy immense and well-deserved popularity. In particular, parsnips were appreciated even in Ancient Rome, honoring it not only as a vegetable, but also as a healing culture.
In pre-revolutionary Russia, light vegetable dishes were prepared from it, which were included in the most exquisite menus for ceremonial feasts and ceremonial receptions. And in Renaissance Europe, this plant was almost as popular as potatoes today, since it was parsnips (albeit until the time when potatoes gained universal recognition) that Europeans were widely used in salads and soups, fried and stewed with other vegetables. Moreover, the British even learned how to cook various desserts from parsnips (for example, jams) and homemade wine, which, according to connoisseurs, had a magnificent golden color and was distinguished by excellent taste.
Of course, today parsnips are not a competitor to everyone's favorite potatoes, but as one of the additional vegetables that diversify the diet, it will come in handy, as it goes well with other vegetables and is able to ennoble the taste of a wide variety of dishes. So getting a small garden bed with parsnips does not hurt at all, especially since every gardener is quite capable of growing it.
Both taste and benefit
Root crops of parsnips are distinguished by their peculiar aroma and unique sweetish taste, which is due to their high content of sugars and starch. Therefore, earlier they were widely used as a seasoning for vegetable and meat soups and dishes with boiled meat, they were used in stewed and fried form, in the preparation of vegetable caviar and sauces (once parsnip sauces were usually served with sturgeon and cauliflower). Dried and ground parsnip root vegetables were used to make coffee, and boiled root vegetables with hops were added to beer.
As for the benefits of this plant, in terms of the total content of easily digestible carbohydrates, parsnip holds the palm among other root vegetables. It stimulates the appetite and aids in digestion, and therefore is useful for stomach ailments. A large amount of vitamin B2, zinc and magnesium contained in root vegetables support the immune system, therefore parsnips are recommended to restore strength in recovering people. It also contains a fairly significant amount of other vitamins (primarily vitamins C, B1 and PP), minerals (sodium, potassium, calcium, iron and phosphorus), various enzymes and essential oils, which in turn causes diuretics and expectorants. properties. Therefore, in folk medicine, the infusion and decoction of the roots are taken as a diuretic for dropsy and as an analgesic for renal,hepatic and gastric colic, and also drink when coughing to soften it and increase the separation of sputum. Water infusion of parsnips with sugar is used to improve appetite and as a tonic for general weakness of the body.
It should also be noted that parsnip is a valuable feed for animals and birds, since it significantly increases milk yield and the percentage of fat in milk and increases the productivity of keeping other animals.
In comparison with many other garden crops, parsnip is very unpretentious, however, in order to obtain high yields of high-quality root crops, some of its features should be taken into account.
1. Among root crops, parsnip is one of the most cold-resistant - the minimum temperature for germination of its seeds is + 5 … + 6 ° C, and the optimal temperature is + 16 … + 18 ° C. Seedlings can easily withstand frosts down to -6… -8 ° C.
2. He loves sunlight and fertile soil, so this crop will grow well where cabbage or potatoes were grown last season. However, on soils where manure was introduced this year, parsnips (like other root crops) should not be planted, this plant does not tolerate acidic soils.
3. Parsnips need regular watering (especially during the formation of root crops). With a lack of moisture, the leaves of the plant turn pale, their growth slows down, while some of the plants shoot arrows, and the resulting roots crack strongly and become dry and fibrous.
4. Parsnips cannot tolerate excess moisture in the root zone - in the case of sowing in areas with a close occurrence of groundwater, plants cannot fully develop and are strongly affected by fungal infections. Therefore, it is necessary to choose areas for parsnips where groundwater is deeper than 0.7-1m.
5. It requires a deep arable layer. If the arable layer is insignificant (less than 30 cm), then the roots will not be large and even, because they will have to bend and branch out in order to fit into the existing thin layer of root soil.
6. Parsnips cannot form a normal crop in the same place as in the previous year or in the beds after carrots, parsley or celery. This is due to the fact that causative agents of fungal diseases (white, black and wet bacterial rot), which are common in these crops, accumulate in the soil, which leads to serious loss of yield. Therefore, it is required to observe the alternation of crops - plant parsnips after potatoes, beets or cabbage and return to their original place no earlier than four years later.
Secrets of parsnip agricultural technology
The main soil dressing for parsnips, as well as for carrots, is usually done in the fall, preparing the ridges and adding humus or compost to the soil. In this case, in the spring, before sowing, it will be enough to add complex fertilizer and ash and loosen the ridge. It is possible to make a complete preparation of the ridge in the spring, but it is better to refuse this, since in this case it will be necessary to sow seeds much later, which is undesirable. Better still choose autumn.
In order for parsnip seeds to germinate faster (and they germinate like carrot seeds slowly), before sowing, it is better to soak them in water or, even more efficiently, in solutions of stimulants, for example, Epin, and then dry them to a loose state.
In late April - early May, it is time for sowing. Seeds are sown in rows, leaving a row spacing of 40-60 cm, or with ribbons with two lines with a distance between the lines of 20 cm, and between the ribbons - 50 cm.On loamy soils, parsnip seeds are usually planted to a depth of 2-2.5 cm, on lighter soils deeper - 3-4 cm.
After sowing, it is better to close the ridge with a film - this will speed up the emergence of seedlings and save you from tedious watering, which is required a lot in spring winds. When the first shoots appear (and even if the seeds are soaked and there is a film on the ridge, you should not wait earlier than 12-15 days), the film will need to be removed immediately, otherwise the plants will die under the rays of the sun.
Taking care of parsnips is no more difficult than caring for carrots or parsley. Like carrots, parsnips need to be thinned out, after which there should be a distance of 5-6 cm between the plants. It is better to do this before the plants form a second true leaf, so as not to attract carrot flies to them.
To prevent the root crops from cracking, parsnips need to be watered very regularly, and abundantly (with soaking of the entire root layer) - surface watering leads to the appearance of ugly root crops. After watering, remember to break up the soil crust and loosen the soil between the rows. It is useful to mulch the soil between the rows with stale sawdust or leaf litter. This should be done immediately after the emergence of shoots - then it will have to loosen it much less often. It is worth noting another nuance characteristic only of parsnips - on hot days, the villi on its leaves release essential oils, which, if they come into contact with the skin, can cause burns. Therefore, in such weather, it is better not to touch the plants, which, in principle, is not difficult if the parsnip is already thinned out, because you can water it and loosen the soil in clothes with long sleeves and gloves.If you need to carry out some operations without gloves, then you will have to do it early in the morning or after sunset, when the heat subsides, or postpone the treatment on cloudy days.
Since parsnips are especially hardy, you can take your time with the harvest of root crops until late autumn. Moreover, part of the parsnip roots should be left under the snow until spring - in this case, their leaves are cut off in the fall, and the roots themselves are spud. It is necessary to harvest such "winter" roots in early spring - before they start growing. If you are not going to leave the parsnips to winter, then it is not necessary to wait for the first frosts. If the leaves of the plant begin to die off, then the roots are fully ripe, and they can be removed. When harvesting, the roots are carefully dug out with a pitchfork, separated from the tops, cleaned from the ground and placed in boxes with sand or plastic bags for storage. During storage, it is desirable to maintain a temperature of + 1 … + 3 ° C and a relative humidity of 90-95%.
As noted, parsnips can be used in a wide variety of dishes - they can be baked, boiled, or steamed. There are no special cooking tricks. You just need to remember that, like potatoes, parsnip roots turn black, so after cleaning they are immediately immersed in cold water. When it comes to boiling root vegetables, it usually takes no longer than 10 minutes to cook parsnip pieces so that they remain tender, but do not turn into mashed potatoes.
Parsnip with sour cream
Parsnip - 800-1200 g, butter - 50 g, flour - 1 tbsp. l., sour cream - 2 glasses.
Cut the parsnips into slices, season with butter and flour. Dissolve with two glasses of sour cream, brown in the oven or oven.
Parsnip salad with parsley
Parsnip - 200 g, vegetable oil - 20 g, milk - 40 g, parsley (herbs) - 20 g, salt - to taste.
Peel and wash the parsnip roots, cut into wedges. Pour vegetable oil into a saucepan, put prepared parsnips, cover with a lid and sauté over the fire for 7 minutes. Then add milk and simmer for another 4 minutes. Cool, combine with well-washed finely chopped parsley.
Parsnip salad with beets
Parsnip - 200 g, beets - 200 g, green peas (canned) - 200 g, pickles - 100 g, egg (hard-boiled) - 1 pc., Vegetable oil - 4 tablespoons, lemon juice - 1-2 tsp, black pepper (ground), salt - to taste.
Peel and boil the parsnips and beets separately, cut into small cubes and mix with the green peas. Add finely chopped pickles, pepper, salt and season with a mixture of vegetable oil and lemon juice. Sprinkle with chopped egg on top.
Parsnips with white sauce
800 g parsnips, 2 tbsp. tablespoons of butter, 1 tbsp. a spoonful of flour, salt to taste.
Peel the parsnips, wash, cut into small pieces and boil in salted water. Fry the flour, add oil to it and dilute with broth. Pour this sauce over the parsnips and serve.
Saute of parsnips and carrots
Parsnip (root) - 2 pcs., Carrots - 2 pcs., Olive oil - 4-5 tablespoons, garlic - 3 cloves, nutmeg - 1/2 tsp, parsley (herbs) - to taste, sea salt - 1 tsp, ground black pepper - to taste.
The parsnips are peeled and cut into thin strips. The washed and peeled carrots are cut into slices. Prepared vegetables are laid out in a saucepan, olive oil, nutmeg, sea salt, ground black pepper are added and fried over high heat for 2-3 minutes, stirring constantly. Reduce heat, cover and cook for another 10-15 minutes. Shortly before cooking, sprinkle the dish with chopped garlic and finely chopped parsley. This aromatic dish can be served hot with stews, and cold - as a vegetable snack, lightly seasoned with mayonnaise.
Cabbage and parsnip cabbage rolls
Cabbage - 500 g, parsnips (roots) - 500 g, onions - 100 g, sour cream - 200 g, vegetable oil - 100 g, salt - to taste.
Wash parsnip roots, peel and grate on a coarse grater. Peel the onion, chop, mix with parsnip and sauté in vegetable oil. Chop the cabbage, pour boiling water over it, stand under the lid until it cools down, squeeze out and mix with browned vegetables, adding sour cream and salt. Form cabbage rolls, put in a saucepan, pour salted boiling water over so that they are slightly covered with water, and simmer under a lid over low heat until tender. Serve with garlic sauce or dill.
200 g parsnips, 1 tsp flour, 1 tbsp. a spoonful of vegetable oil, salt to taste.
Rinse the parsnips, peel, coarsely grate, combine with flour and sauté in vegetable oil. Then add salt, mix and beat with a mixer. Serve with cauliflower.