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The Experience Of Growing Arrow-shaped Garlic In The North-West Region
The Experience Of Growing Arrow-shaped Garlic In The North-West Region

Video: The Experience Of Growing Arrow-shaped Garlic In The North-West Region

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Garlic
Garlic

For a practitioner-vegetable grower, scientific systematics is not so important. Rather, some of the features of growing plants are more interesting. But in order to clarify what kind of plants will be discussed in a series of articles I have conceived, I will say: the kingdom is plants; department - angiosperms; class - monocots; order - asparagus; family - onions; subfamily - Allioideae; genus - bow. The scientific Latin name given by Linnaeus is lat. allium - comes from the Latin name for garlic, so I would like to start the description with the species - Garlic (Allium sativum L).

I will not dwell on the botanical features of garlic, you can read about this in the special literature. I will only note that there are arrow-shaped forms of garlic, in which the cloves are arranged radially in one row. About him and will be discussed further. There are also non-arrowed ones - with a spiral arrangement of cloves in 2-3 circles. Spring garlic has no stem in the middle of the head. In the North-West, it rarely attracts the attention of gardeners.

Garlic is a cold-resistant plant, begins to germinate at a temperature of 3 … 5 ° C, easily tolerates frost.

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Winter garlic agrotechnology

Its root system is weak. He loves a fertile, humus-filled structural soil (pH 6-7.5). If the soil is acidic, then yellowing of the leaves of garlic is often observed. For normal growth and development, garlic needs a neutral soil. Fresh manure should not be applied. He responds well to the introduction of wood ash before planting. It helps to increase the winter hardiness of garlic, as it contains phosphorus and potassium in easily digestible forms.

The best precursors of garlic are planting in pairs, on perennial grasses, green manure, after legumes, pumpkin seeds, early or cauliflower, green vegetables. You can not plant it after potatoes, tomatoes because of the possibility of damage to garlic by fusarium, as well as after onions. Not a good option is to combine garlic with strawberries, there is evidence that in this case the quality of the berry harvest deteriorates. It is recommended to plant garlic in the old place no earlier than after 4-5 years.

The area intended for garlic is dug up. Better - two weeks before planting, and apply fertilizers: 1 m² - 7 kg of humus, 50 g of superphosphate and potassium sulfate, 300 g of wood ash.

It is more convenient to grow garlic on ridges 15-20 cm high and 1 m wide. The ridges and rows should be located from north to south. Garlic does not tolerate shading well. To make the heads large, they plant it with row spacing of 20-25 cm and between plants 10-13 cm, the depth of planting cloves is 6-9 cm from the bottom. The optimal nutritional area for garlic plants is 150-360 cm², i.e. 50-80 plants per 1 m². It is impractical to close the cloves deeper, in this case the garlic ripens later.

It is better to divide the head into teeth a day or two before planting. If you do this earlier, they can get sick, and scales can come off them. This garlic is planted in the fall in such a way that before the onset of winter, the teeth have time to form roots 10-15 cm long, but shoots do not appear. Depending on the weather and the growing area, this takes 35-50 days. In the Pskov region, where our site is located, this is approximately from 5 to 14 October.

It is very useful to disinfect chives before planting in a 1% solution of copper sulfate for 15 minutes, or in a 3% solution of basezol - for 1-2 minutes. For planting, you need to select large and medium bulbs, and after separation - large cloves (the weight of the planting clove affects the yield of garlic, less - the weight of the uterine bulb). The teeth should not be strongly pressed into the ground - the bottom can be damaged. But making holes with a peg is not the best option. The soil is compacted, on which the bottom of the clove lies, and it is more difficult for the germinating roots to develop.

For planting, it is better to make grooves, spread the teeth there with the bottom down, slightly pressing them into a loose layer of earth at the required distance and depth, then fill these grooves with humus, if any, with a layer of 1 cm, add a little ash there and carefully cover with earth.

Some experts recommend mulching the planting. But we do not do this in our beds, we believe that our winters are very often with thaws, garlic can rip out. The best shelter for garlic is a layer of snow.

In the spring, as soon as the snow melts, you remove the straw and foliage, if you have mulched plantings in the fall. As soon as shoots are outlined, weed the bed, loosen the soil there and at the same time fertilize it with nitrogen fertilizers at the rate of 5 g / m² (based on the active ingredient). Garlic cannot compete with weeds. When shaded with them, it sharply reduces the yield. We must take this into account and monitor the cleanliness of the garden. It is useful to mulch the soil between the rows with humus. It must be remembered that with a thickened planting, the roots of garlic are shallow, they fill all the space between the plants, so you need to loosen the soil carefully, but it is better not to thicken the planting.

Garlic dressing

We usually do the first feeding one month after germination: 10 g of ammonium nitrate and 10 g of superphosphate per 1 m². The second - two weeks after the first: 5 g of potassium sulfate and 5 g of superphosphate. We make the third at the end of June, fertilize only with wood ash - 1.5 cups per 1 m².

When the arrows are formed, they must be plucked out, not allowing them to grow by more than 10-11 cm, then the bulbs will be larger. Just don’t pull the false stem up when you remove the arrow - the leaves will turn yellow.

If the summer is dry, the garlic is watered. During watering, the soil is impregnated to the depth of the root system (at first - by 40 cm, and then - by 60 cm). Do not forget to loosen the beds after watering after a couple of days. Garlic is not watered three weeks before harvesting.

The best temperature for the growth of garlic is + 18 … + 20 ° С.

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Harvesting garlic

Shooting garlic begins to be harvested when the lower leaves turn yellow and when the coverts of the bulbs dry out. In the Pskov region, this happens in late July - early August. In more northern regions - a little later. It is recommended to remove the garlic along with the leaves and dry it for a week, in this case, the outflow of nutrients from the leaves into the bulb occurs. We remove the leaves immediately after harvesting, cut off the stem, leaving only 5 cm to the bulb. It's more convenient to dry it this way. We just did not notice that during the drying of the leaves, the weight of the bulb increased.

After harvesting, dry the garlic in the sun, if the weather is rainy - in the attic with ventilation. (For industrial cultivation, it is dried with active ventilation, gradually increasing the temperature from 25 to 40 ° C). After drying, we trim the roots and shorten the stem to 2 cm. We store the well-dried bulbs at a temperature of 18 … 20 ° C.

Diseases and pests of garlic

A few words must be said about his illnesses. I will not dwell on specific diseases, especially since in practice diseases usually occur and develop not in the form of one of the many: black mold, bacteriosis and fusarium, cervical rot and gray mold, this list can be continued. Usually garlic is affected by several diseases at the same time. But it is better not to bring the matter to diseases. And for this, you must strictly observe the agrotechnics described by me and the rotation of crops, as well as have a healthy seed.

Of the pests of garlic, the onion fly is the most troublesome. We spray the plantings with leptocide, we apply it to the leaves of plants at the end of May. The instructions for the drug have a description of how to use it.

Garlic varieties

Garlic
Garlic

I don't want to advertise this or that garlic variety. Of the winter arrowing varieties of garlic, they are zoned: Boguslavsky, Belorussky, Polet, Starobelsky local, Pobeda, Yubileyny Gribovsky, Kharkovsky 1, Otradnensky, Donetsk violet, Siberian, Egorlyksky, Dungansky local, Zailiysky, Tyanshansky, South violet local, Dzhalibinsky Dubkovokiy (Antey), Parus and others.

We tried different varieties of garlic, but the local variety was the most suitable. I note that this culture does not always show all the qualities of the variety in specific conditions. Meteorological conditions during the growing season are the main factors affecting the manifestation of all varietal traits. In addition, only the "elite" is a high-class seed material that possesses economic, biological qualities and morphological characteristics characteristic of this variety. Unfortunately, it is quite difficult to find elite material. I recommend using local varieties on your farm. And conduct your own selection: leave the most outstanding bulbs for seeds according to the trait you are interested in.

Selective selection in the beds

With prolonged reproduction only by chives, more and more diseases accumulate in garlic plants, it degenerates. Therefore, it is advisable to update all planting material every 3-4 years and conduct your own selection selection. To do this, each time we plant the bulbs to obtain one-tooth, then we get full-fledged heads from the one-tooth. When sowing with bulbs, the spread of stem nematode and a number of other diseases is excluded.

Bulbs of garlic used for sowing should be selected as the largest.

A few words about how we do it. Leave the arrows on the plants grown from the largest cloves. Then we remove the whole plant, with the bulb and bulbs. We dry well for three weeks. When the stem dries up, we separate the heads with the bulbs without damaging the sheaths. We store them in newsprint in an open plastic bag in the room. A month before sowing, we disassemble, remove the dried bulbs, keep the seed in the refrigerator.

A day before sowing, soak in an infusion of wood ash (pour 300 g of wood ash with a liter of water, leave for two days). We plant only those bulbs that have sunk to the bottom. The sowing is shallow - by 1 cm. To prevent the topsoil from drying out, we mulch it with humus. We plant as early as possible. We fertilize the soil for the bulbs in the same way as for the cloves. We set aside the sunniest place for the garden.

It is better to plan the area for the bulbs in the summer and keep it under clean steam. In the fall, we plant the grown one-toothed teeth, like ordinary teeth. This is exactly how, subject to agricultural technology, your selection selection, you can get a high-quality harvest of garlic.

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