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Biological Features And Agricultural Technology Of White Cabbage
Biological Features And Agricultural Technology Of White Cabbage

Video: Biological Features And Agricultural Technology Of White Cabbage

Video: Biological Features And Agricultural Technology Of White Cabbage
Video: Awesome Cabbages Farming Agriculture Technology - Japan Cabbages Harvesting - Cabbages Cultivation 2023, May

For the cabbage to be born

White cabbage
White cabbage

This culture can be considered one of the most suitable for salads. In addition, it contains a wide range of vitamins, in particular it contains a rather rare vitamin V.

Although white cabbage is a fairly familiar and long-grown crop, not everyone succeeds, because it is still quite demanding on nutrition and moisture, because of this it happens that some gardeners grow too small heads in some years.

Therefore, it must be grown either on an organic garden bed, like "warm" for cucumbers, or on a regular, but with good dressing and a set of care measures, first of all, in compliance with the fertilizer system, as well as the protection system. The system should be understood as an exhaustive list of agricultural practices to provide plants with nutrition or comprehensive protection against pests and diseases. Now about everything in order.

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Biological features of cabbage

White cabbage shoots appear even at temperatures of 2… 3 ° C. The optimum temperature for germination is 17 … 20 ° C. In the phase of emergence and the beginning of growth, cabbage tolerates frosts up to -2 ° С. In the open field during the period of growth and development, the optimum temperature is 12 … 18 ° C, critical + 30 … 35 ° C. At such a high temperature, there is an intense physiological evaporation of moisture through the stomata, and if watering is not carried out, hard leaves are formed. Cabbage prefers medium loamy soils with organic matter content of at least 3-4%, with a neutral reaction (pH 6.5-7). On acidic soils, it is often affected by the keel. The place for her must necessarily be light - in the shade, cabbage does not develop well. It is better to plant it after crops such as early potatoes, cucumber, squash, onions, green crops.

We grow on an ordinary earthen bed

Agrotechnology begins with fertilizing and digging or deep loosening. First of all, you need to add organic fertilizer, as well as phosphorus and potassium or complex. If you apply ordinary compost or manure as an organic fertilizer, then the dose should be about 10-13 kg / m? (about 1.5 buckets), and for late cabbage - up to 20 kg / m2? with continuous application. It is better to apply peat at 20-25 kg / m3. But such concentrated fertilizers as biohumus or EM compost are required several times less.

It is worth noting that the total amount of fertilizer applied should be proportional to the duration of the growing season of a particular variety. That is, the least fertilizer should be applied for early cabbage and most of all - for late cabbage. This applies to both organic and mineral fertilizers.

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Soil preparation

White cabbage
White cabbage

It is usually recommended to start it with digging, which should be preceded by the introduction of organic and part of mineral fertilizers. Autumn processing is considered more effective than spring processing, therefore it is usually advised to dig it in the fall.

However, if you didn't manage to do this in the fall, then it is quite possible to dig it up in the spring. If digging was carried out as the main treatment, then in the spring, in any case, harrowing with a rake should be carried out.

On relatively light and sufficiently cultivated soils, slightly infested with perennial weeds, loosening with a large hand-held flat cutter can be proposed as the main treatment.

Early cabbage

Seedlings should be planted outdoors in the Northwest from April 25 to May 5. For the heads of cabbage to have time to curl and grow, its age should be from 45 to 55 days. Planting scheme 70x25 cm - for varieties June, No. 1 Gribovsky, hybrids Parell and Transfer. For the Kraft hybrid and the Golden Hectare variety, the planting pattern is 70x30 cm. When planting, it is advisable to pour 0.3-0.4 liters into each hole. water. After that, continuous survival watering is needed, while water should be poured out at 7-12 l / m2.

10-15 days after planting the seedlings, the first feeding with nitrogen fertilizer is recommended. At the same time, its dose should be moderate: 10 g (1/2 matchbox) of ammonium nitrate, 15 g of ammonium sulfate, 7-8 g of urea are enough for 1 m2. For uniformity, it is more convenient to apply fertilizer in a dissolved form. In the growth phase of the head of cabbage, a second feeding with a complex fertilizer or a mixture of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers is advisable, while 1 part of phosphorus should account for 2 parts of nitrogen and potassium.

Medium to medium late cabbage

It is recommended to plant seedlings in the ground in our region from May 20 to June 1 according to the scheme 60-70x40 cm. It is better to plant it at the age of 40-45 days. The first feeding is carried out in the phase of growth of the rosette of leaves with nitrogen fertilizer. The second feeding, which should be complex, is recommended to be done in the phase of the beginning of curling the head. In this case, the ratio of elements is recommended the same as that of early cabbage. At this time, after feeding, it is advisable to huddle the plants.

In the phase of intensive growth of the head of cabbage, a third feeding is recommended, also complex. In this case, you can take both a complex mineral fertilizer ("Zdraven", "Kemira", azofoska) and organic, for example, an infusion of manure (especially if it is horse manure, but you can also use mullein). The latter are most effective when adding microbiological fertilizer "Baikal EM-1". Three weeks before harvest, a fourth potassium fertilization is recommended. Potassium at this time needs about 3 g / m? - such an amount of the element is contained in 10 g of potassium magnesium and about 30-40 g of ash.

Late cabbage

The term for planting in open ground is from 10 to 20 May. The planting scheme is 70x50-60 (70) cm. Exceptions in the planting dates are hybrids Crumont and variety Amager 611, which are planted with a distance between plants of 60 cm. For the Moscow late variety, the distance between plants is better to be 70 cm.

It is recommended to feed late cabbage varieties according to the traditional technology four times. The first feeding is recommended to be done the same as for other varieties during the growth of the rosette of leaves, approximately 10-15 days after planting the seedlings - with nitrogen fertilizer in a minimum dose. The second feeding should be the same as for mid-season varieties for hilling in the phase of the beginning of head formation. The composition of the top dressing is the same as for medium and medium late varieties. Late cabbage should be harvested before the onset of stable frosts, for example, in late September or early October. Late cabbage during the period when the heads of cabbage are ready for harvesting can tolerate frosts down to -5 ° С. After freezing, cleaning can be carried out at least 6 hours later.

Medium late cabbage can be stored in piles or nets. Storage temperature 0 … + 1 ° С. Let's admit a drop of up to -1 ° С. The optimum air humidity for storage is 75-80%.

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