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Video: How To Properly Water Berry And Fruit Crops
Read the previous part: How to properly water vegetables and green crops
They are very demanding on soil fertility, since they endure a lot of nutrients during the growing season and fruiting. To make up for their shortage, organic and mineral fertilizers should be applied annually.
And since the formation of roots, leaves, fruits and other organs of berry plants requires a lot of water, additional soil moisture is needed. These crops develop best when soil moisture content is 70-80% of full field moisture capacity. This can only be achieved by irrigation at the optimal time and using the correct water consumption rates.
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Strawberries. The amount of watering depends on the composition of the soil. On sandy loamy soils, plants are watered at the rate of 15-20 liters, on loamy soils - 20-25 liters, on medium loamy soils - 20-30 liters, on heavy loamy and clayey - 25-35 liters per 1 m². The water temperature must be at least 15 ° C. Strawberry plants most of all need moisture after flowering, during the ripening period of berries. They need to be watered along the furrows with a fill. Sprinkler irrigation can be used during hot periods.
After harvesting, weeds are pulled out and the aisles are loosened to a depth of 4-8 cm.Before loosening, 100 g of ammonium nitrate is introduced into the soil in summer for every 10 running meters of row spacing, and in mid-August - 120-150 g of superphosphate and 60-80 g of sulfate potassium. In the spring, fertilizing with mineral fertilizers is repeated. At the beginning of plant growth, it is effective to feed strawberries with a mixture of trace elements - boron, molybdenum and manganese - at the rate of 10 g per 10 l of water.
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Gooseberry. After the autumn planting, the soil is watered at the rate of 10 liters of water for 2-3 bushes. When planting in spring in dry weather, the seedlings are watered three times. Watering is most important in the fruiting phase.
The culture is fed twice - after flowering and 15-20 days after the first feeding, using 150-200 g of superphosphate and 40-60 g of potassium sulfate per bush when loosening. Nitrogen fertilizers (70 g of ammonium nitrate) are applied in the spring before digging the soil in the row spacing, organic fertilizers - 15-20 kg of rotted manure, humus or compost per bush.
Raspberries. It is watered along the furrows made in the aisles, or by sprinkling, using 20 liters of water on sandy loamy soils, 25 liters on light loamy soils, 30 liters on medium loamy soils, and 35 liters on heavy loamy soils. Raspberries need water especially sharply during the formation of berries, during their ripening and after harvesting. The amount of watering depends on the weather conditions.
If the weather is dry during the berry formation phase, water the raspberries after 7-10 days. If the summer was dry, during the fall of leaves, they carry out subwinter water-charging irrigation at the rate of 50-100 liters per 1 m². In the spring, before digging the aisles, 70 g of ammonium nitrate is introduced under each bush, and slurry diluted with water is added under the fruit-bearing bushes. 5 liters of solution are consumed per bush.
In the fall, you can add 6-8 kg of rotted manure, humus or compost under each bush. If manure was not applied in the fall, then for 1 part of mineral fertilizers (50-70 g of superphosphate and 15-20 g of potassium sulfate) in the spring, take 5 parts of loose humus and mix thoroughly. Use everything on one bush.
Sea buckthorn. To improve the fertility of the soil, up to 15 kg of humus per 1 m² is introduced for digging. If the soil is heavy, then its mechanical composition is improved by sanding (20 kg of sand per 1 m²).
Black and red currants. To maintain optimal soil moisture during the entire growing season, the bushes are watered 2-3 times. The first watering is carried out during the period of intensive growth and formation of ovaries (beginning of the nurse) and in the phase of crop formation (early July). The third time the plants are watered after harvest.
The irrigation rate on sandy loamy soils is 20-25 liters, on light loamy soils - 20-30 liters, on medium loamy soils - 25-30 liters, on heavy loamy soils - 30-45 liters per bush. Watering should be done along furrows or in circular grooves 10-15 cm deep, which are made at a distance of 30-40 cm from the ends of the branches of the bush. At the end of flowering, shoots begin to grow and berries form.
During this period, along with good watering (second), feeding with organic fertilizers is very important. To do this, the mullein is diluted with water at the rate of 1: 5, consuming a bucket of solution per 1 m² of the trunk circle. After harvesting, a complete mineral fertilizer with micronutrient fertilizers is applied in a dose of 100 g per 1 m². It includes 20 g of ammonium nitrate, 40 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium sulfate, 5 g of manganese sulfate, 3 g of zinc sulfate and 2 g of ammonium molybdenum. This top dressing can be combined with the third watering.
At the end of September, once every 3-4 years, 4-6 kg of organic and mineral (120-150 g of superphosphate and 30-40 g of potassium sulfate) fertilizers are added under each currant bush, which are dug up with the soil. Note that red currants are less demanding on the introduction of organic fertilizers than black, but more sensitive to chlorine, so it is better to add potassium sulfate or wood ash, or concentrated fertilizers - potassium chloride under it.
In areas with insufficient rainfall in the summer months, fruit crops should be watered, especially on light sandy loam soils. The trees are watered so that the soil under the crown is moistened to a depth of at least 70-80 cm. Watering is also necessary during the period of enhanced growth of shoots, the formation of fruits and the setting of flower buds.
In autumn, with a low amount of precipitation, abundant watering is also carried out to increase the winter hardiness of plants. The irrigation rate for a non-fruiting tree is 5-10 buckets of water, for a fruiting one - 12-15 buckets or more. Clay soils are watered less often, but more abundantly than sandy ones. Water is poured into near-trunk circles, retreating from the trunk of a non-fertile tree by 60-80 cm, from a fruiting tree - by 100-120 cm.
The optimal water consumption when irrigating fruit crops is as follows: irrigation dose is the amount of one-time water consumption, which is determined by the type of soil and weather conditions, for cherries and plums - 30-50 mm / m², for pears and apples - 50-70 mm / m²; and the irrigation rate is the total volume of water consumed by the plant per season, respectively - 100-150 and 200-250 mm / m². It should also be noted that fruit trees respond favorably to spraying the crown with a sprayer, since their leaves perfectly absorb water.
Young trees need to be fed during the growing season. For this, organic fertilizers are used - slurry, fermented bird droppings and feces. The slurry is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 5-6, and feces and poultry droppings - 1: 10-12. One bucket of solution is consumed per 1 m². Mineral fertilizers are applied at the rate of 3 g of ammonium nitrate or urea, 4-5.5 g of superphosphate and 5-10 g of potassium sulfate, diluted in 10 liters of water.
The first top dressing is given for all trees, and then only those with weakened growth or signs of nutritional deficiencies are fed twice. It is better not to feed well-growing and strong trees in summer, as this often leads to "fattening" and a decrease in frost resistance.
On poor soils, fertilizers are applied for fruit trees annually, and on fertile soils - once every two years. If the soil when planting young plantations was well filled with organic fertilizers, the first 2-3 years they can not be fed.
Fertilizing watering before flowering gives good results. For this, cow dung or bird droppings are diluted in water, respectively, 1: 8 and 1:12. For the same purposes, you can use mineral fertilizers at the rate of 1 tablespoon of calcium or potassium nitrate per bucket of water. Both fertilizers are applied per 1 m².
Plums and cherries at a young age require minimal maintenance and nutrition. The soil should be loosened only in the first half of summer. Watering and fertilizing that promote the growth of fruiting trees should be completed by the middle of the nurse. Plum, unlike cherry, gives stronger growth shoots during the growing season.
In a warm rainy autumn, its growth resumes, which is often the reason for the freezing of trees. In this regard, in the second half of the summer, a lot of organic fertilizers should not be applied under the drain and liquid fertilizing with mineral nitrogen should not be given. The optimal timing for watering a plum is before bud break, before flowering and immediately after flowering. Water consumption 3-6 buckets per tree. Cherries are watered before flowering, during the growth of ovaries and during the period of leaf fall. On sandy loam soil, 2-3 buckets of water are consumed, on light loamy soil - 3-4, on loamy soil - 4-5, on heavy loamy and clayey - 5-6 buckets of water per 1 m² of near-trunk circle.
Apple and pear. When planting, seedlings are given 2-3 buckets of water, which is not enough. Therefore, in June and July, two more waterings are carried out, 5-6 buckets for each tree. This promotes root development and enhanced tree growth. For young plantings in the growth phase of leaves and shoots, the optimum soil moisture level should lie in a layer of up to 80 cm.It also makes sense to carry out two vegetation irrigations - at the end of June and July, but not later, so that the winter hardiness of the seedlings does not decrease.
Fruiting trees are watered five times during the growing season: before bud break, before flowering, immediately after it, 15-20 days after flowering and in the phase of the beginning of fruit ripening. Watering rate is 4-5 buckets per tree. Flowering trees should not be watered. Short dry periods do not affect the growth and productivity of crops, since they have a well-developed root system.
How to water properly:
Part 1. General rules for watering plants
Part 2. How to properly water vegetable and green crops
Part 3. How to properly water berry and fruit crops
Part 4. How to properly water flower crops
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