Table of contents:
- More attention to the main Russian vegetables - turnips and rutabagas
- Turnip and rutabaga requirements for agricultural technology
- Turnip and rutabaga varieties
- Growing turnips and rutabagas
Video: Growing Turnips And Rutabagas
2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 20:34
More attention to the main Russian vegetables - turnips and rutabagas
Turnip appeared in Russia a very long time ago, they began to cultivate it long before the appearance of other vegetable plants. It was of great importance in the nutrition of Russians right up to the spread of potatoes.
Turnip fed not only peasants, wanderers, people of townspeople and military men, but was also served on the tsar's and boyars' tables. They ate it baked, boiled, steamed, used it as a filling for pies, prepared complex dishes from it, and even made kvass. Young leaves were fermented, and in winter they boiled cabbage soup and stews from them.
In Russia, turnip was considered the main vegetable until the 18th century and played the same role as potatoes now. It was the cheapest vegetable. It is not for nothing that there is a saying to this day: "Cheaper than a steamed turnip."
Since ancient times, people have known that turnip is good for health. When they learned to determine the chemical composition of plants, this was confirmed.
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Turnip is rich in energy and plastic substances. They found proteins and carbohydrates in it. Stearins, carotenoids, phosphatides and fatty acids, anthocyanins, and a number of other compounds have been identified in root crops. Turnip is rich in vitamins. So, in terms of the amount of vitamin C, it often surpasses oranges, lemons, white cabbage, radishes, tomatoes, raspberries and strawberries by almost twice, table beets and onions by 6 times, cucumbers and carrots by 12 times. In addition to ascorbic acid, vitamins B1, B2, B5, PP, carotene (in yellow-meat varieties) accumulate in it. Turnip contains minerals important for the human body - potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron.
There are more sugar in turnips of some varieties than in relatively sweet apples.
The presence of mustard oils gives turnips a peculiar taste and smell, and in combination with phytoncides - bactericidal properties.
In domestic folk medicine, turnip was considered a remedy. In the North, it has long been used as an antiscorbutic agent. Turnip juice with honey is considered a cardiovascular stimulant. A decoction or juice of turnips is drunk with a severe cold cough and hoarseness. With a mixture of mashed raw turnips and goose fat (2: 1), frostbite areas are smeared. In scientific medicine, it is widely used as a dietary food product for a number of diseases.
Rutabaga - was as popular with our ancestors as turnip. It is in many ways similar to turnip, but surpasses it in nutritional value. It is richer in vitamin C, which is also highly resistant to winter storage and boiling of swede, which makes it an especially valuable product in winter and early spring, when there is a lack of vitamins. Root vegetables contain a lot of sugars, which are represented by glucose and fructose, pectin substances. The content of niacin and vitamin B6 is quite high. Root crops contain much larger amounts of potassium, phosphorus and sulfur salts. The people consider rutabagas a good diuretic and expectorant. Dishes made from it are recommended for obesity. Swede juice is used to speed up the healing of hard-to-scar wounds after burns.
Turnip and rutabaga requirements for agricultural technology
Turnip and rutabaga are long day plants. This means that with a short day, their development is slow.
Since these crops represent biennial roots, in the first year the formation of the root crop with a short day is slower than with a long one.
They are less demanding for light intensity than beets, carrots, celery. Therefore, they can be grown as compaction crops along the edges of the ridges, along the paths.
Turnips and rutabagas are cold-resistant plants. Their seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 1-2 ° C, but the optimum temperature for their germination is 9-11 ° C. Seedlings can withstand short-term frosts up to -3.. -4 ° С, adult plants up to -6 … -8 ° С. The optimum temperature for plant growth and development is 15-17 ° C. With significant drops in temperature, growth slows down and the appearance of "flowers" with a rough woody root crop is possible. Excess heat has a negative effect on turnips and rutabagas. At a prolonged temperature of 20 ° C, root crops are formed coarse and lose their dietary properties.
Turnips and rutabagas have a weak root system, unlike beets and carrots. Therefore, for the formation of the crop, they need sufficiently moist soils and high air humidity. However, their need for water in different phases of growth and development changes: they are most demanding of moisture during seed germination, when seedlings appear, at the beginning of the formation of true leaves and during the period of intensive formation of root crops (one month before harvesting). Watering during these periods in the absence of rain significantly increases the yield of root crops.
In conditions of air drought, turnip and rutabaga are strongly affected by pests, in particular by the earthen flea, which in some seasons can completely destroy seedlings, especially turnips.
Turnip and rutabaga occupy one of the first places after potatoes and cabbage in terms of the removal of soil nutrients.
The intake of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium in turnips and swede is much more energetic than in beets. Hence, we can conclude that they are more responsive to the introduction of mineral fertilizers in the first periods of growth and development than beets and carrots.
It is not recommended to apply fresh manure fertilizer under turnips, rutabagas. On poor podzolic soils, rotted manure or humus is introduced in the fall.
Turnips and rutabagas are considered to be tolerant to increased acidity of the soil solution, although the optimal indicator is pH 6-7. Turnip on acidic soils is more affected than rutabaga by keel.
Liming of acidic soils is carried out in the fall under the previous culture. With a strong acidity, 500-600 g of lime is introduced, with an average - 300-400 g. Calcium binds an excess of mobile forms of aluminum, manganese, and iron oxide, harmful to plants, which reduce the yield. In addition to macronutrients, turnip and rutabaga are very responsive to the introduction of trace elements.
Boron is the most important - it increases the yield of root crops, their sugar content and resistance to diseases. Copper and magnesium are involved in metabolism, increase the content of chlorophyll in cells.
Soil and predecessors
The best soils for turnips and rutabagas are loamy and sandy loam, rich in humus. Choose a site where during the last 3-4 years vegetables from the cruciferous family (radish, radish, cabbage of all types) have not been grown. Turnips, rutabagas grow well on fertilized soils. The best predecessors of turnips and rutabagas: tomato, cucumber, green crops, squash, early potatoes.
Autumn digging is done to a depth of 22-25 cm along with the introduction of rotted manure.
In the spring, the soil is dug to a depth of 18-10 cm and full mineral fertilizer is applied for harrowing - 70-80 g of ecofoski per 1 m².
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Turnip and rutabaga varieties
The most widespread variety of turnip is Petrovskaya 1. It is characterized by flat and rounded-flat roots of bright yellow color, the pulp is yellow, juicy, sweet. The variety is medium early, fruitful. Relatively resistant to bacteriosis and phomosis. Long-term storage is satisfactory. Suitable for growing on different types of soils.
Of the varieties of rutabaga, the unsurpassed, widely known is Krasnoselskaya. Root crops are flat or flat-rounded. Their bark in the lower underground part is yellow, less often light yellow, the head is gray-green, often with traces of anthocyanin coloration. The pulp is firm, intensely yellow, sweet. Super early variety, fruitful. It tolerates soil acidity well. Keeping quality in winter is high. The variety is unstable to the keel. Resistant to flowers.
Growing turnips and rutabagas
Sow turnips in two periods - the early spring (late April - early May) and summer (mid-June - early July). The turnips of the first sowing date are used in the summer, and the second period is used for winter storage. Sowing pattern - 15x3 cm, sowing depth - 1.5 cm. Seedlings are thinned at a distance of 6-8 cm from each other 15-20 days after sowing. At the same time, the crops are weeded and then the aisles are loosened.
A good effect is obtained by applying 20 g of superphosphate and 20-30 g of ash per 1 m² to the furrows when sowing. In the first period of plant life and especially after thinning, the crops are watered. Loosening of row spacings, weeding, watering and feeding are carried out as needed. They are fed 1-2 times during the growing season with an ekofoski solution - 50 g per bucket of water.
Rutabaga, in comparison with turnip, is a late-ripening culture (it takes 90-120 days from sowing to ripening). It is grown by seedlings or by sowing seeds directly into open ground.
For seedlings, sowing seeds is carried out in mid-April on insulated ridges in rows every 5 cm. The seedlings are thinned, leaving 5-6 cm between the plants in a row. The seedlings are watered, fed, insulated on cold nights, the soil is loosened, the film is raised for ventilation, spunbond. All care is the same as for cabbage.
In late May - early June, the seedlings are planted in rows every 45-60 cm in a permanent place, adding 1 g of superphosphate and 2 g of ash to the holes, then watered and sprinkled the soil with dry earth. Plants are placed in a row at a distance of 20-30 cm from each other. In dry weather, the swede is systematically watered and loosened the soil. A week after planting the seedlings, they are fed with a solution of slurry or mullein (2 kg per 10 liters of water for 20 plants), and in early July, after weeding, with a full mineral fertilizer (ecofos) 50 g per 10 liters of water with the addition of microelements: 1 g boric acid, copper sulfate, magnesium sulfate. A month after planting, the plants are fed with wood ash 50 g per 10 liters of water and spud.
With a seedless cultivation method, rutabaga seeds are sown in open ground in late April - early May on ridges with a distance between rows of 40-45 cm, and in a row between holes - 15-18 cm. They are sealed to a depth of 20 cm, several pieces per hole.
During the appearance of the third true leaf, the sowing is thinned, leaving the plants in rows at a distance of 20-30 cm from each other and at the same time weeding. In the future, the same care is carried out as in the cultivation of turnip seedlings.
Turnips and rutabagas have the same complex of diseases and pests as other cruciferous plants (radishes, cabbage, etc.), and, therefore, require similar measures (chemical, biological and agrotechnical) to protect them.
To obtain early production of swede, root crops with a diameter of 10-12 cm are selectively harvested. For autumn and winter consumption, turnips and swede are harvested at the end of the growing season in one step, preventing it from freezing. Cleaning is carried out in dry weather. The leaves are cut at a distance of 1-1.5 cm from the head of the root crop.
Root crops are stored in cellars, basements. Damaged and diseased specimens are discarded immediately before storage. The optimum temperature for storing turnips and rutabagas is 0.. -10 ° С. Relative air humidity 90-95%. A well-proven method of storing rutabagas and turnips in plastic bags. At the same time, conditions are created for increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide and the relative humidity of the air, which contributes to better preservation of root crops.
Since the times of Peter the Great, potatoes have become the second bread in our country. But this is a very short period of time, only three centuries. And what did they eat in Russia before? Have you thought about this question? And somehow I thought. And it turned out that the second bread before the appearance of potatoes was a common turnip
Caring for the seedlings of turnip consists in the timely implementation of measures to combat pests and diseases, in loosening the soil between rows and in rows, in removing weeds, thinning at a distance of 3-4 cm in places where plants are thickened, in watering as needed and in 1- 2 dressings
For medicinal purposes, rutabagas are consumed both raw and after steaming in the oven or in a Russian stove. The sweet, juicy rutabaga pulp can be eaten raw. In addition, it is cooked baked, stewed, fried, both independently and as a side dish for meat and fish dishes
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