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Video: Growing Green Manure. Part 2
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Pulses - green fertilizer
It is well known that garden crops differ in nutritional requirements. Crops that absorb large amounts of minerals and strongly deplete the soil include leafy vegetables, all types of cabbage, leeks, all vegetables from the pumpkin family: cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkins, and celery. Root crops that are less demanding on nutrition are beets, carrots, radishes, and so on.
Crop rotations in the garden
A separate group is formed by vegetables from the legume family, which improve the soil and enrich it with nitrogen - peas, beans and beans. In this regard, several types of crop rotation can be proposed. In the simplest case, the garden is divided into three sections. The first is occupied by food-demanding crops, the second by legumes, which restore soil fertility. The third is with root crops. The alternation goes over the years: demanding crop - legumes - root crops - demanding crop + good organic fertilizer.
In another version, the garden is divided into four sections in order to introduce potatoes into the crop rotation. Then the alternation is as follows: potatoes - leafy vegetables - legumes - roots. Most orchards and vegetable gardens have a special place for strawberries, which are usually grown in the same place for four years and then replaced by another crop. In this case, the garden is divided into five sections, occupied by strawberries enters into a crop rotation every fourth year. After strawberries, it is usually occupied with potatoes.
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Fast growing green crops are not mentioned here, which are sown before or after the main crops or are planted between rows; onions, tomatoes, cucumbers are included in the legume plot.
And the last option is a six-year crop rotation. In this case, the sixth part of the garden or vegetable garden, the sixth plot is allocated for a crop that restores soil fertility. It is processed as follows. In autumn or early spring it is dug up and compost is applied, the surface is leveled with a rake and vetch is sown. After the beginning of flowering, the vetch is mown. Sprinkle the wet mowed mass with a mixture of bone and horn meal at a dose of 51 g / m and leave for a week. The wilted greens are embedded in the soil, the surface is leveled with a rake and rye is sown at the rate of 13 g / m2. Late in autumn, the rye is mowed and the soil is dug up. In the spring, potatoes are dug up and planted again. These costs are paid off by the harvest of subsequent years.
Autumn sowing of green manure after early crops provides great opportunities. If the crop is harvested early and 70-80 days remain until the end of the growing season, lupine, pea-oat mixture, vetch-oat mixture are used for green fertilization.
Siderata in the garden
Green fertilizers are also appropriate in an orchard. Introduced in the aisles of the garden, they increase the yield of fruits. They can occupy an area around trees. The question is whether it is necessary to leave the near-stem circles from the plants and, if necessary, at what distance from the stem. The apple tree has a shallow root system and when the near-stem circles are sod, competition between the roots arises, which negatively affects the yield, especially with insufficient moisture. The best option is when the trunks are mulched with a crushed mass of lupine.
The recommended radius on the trunks occupied by plants ranges from 1-1.5 m to 20-30 cm and depends on the moisture conditions. It is important that green fertilization does not negatively affect fruit trees. This is especially important during critical periods for them - the maximum growth of shoots and when laying new fruit buds, when the need for food and water is greatest. For green fertilization in the gardens of the northern strip, the following are recommended: vetch-oatmeal and vetch-rye mixtures, rank, peas, lupine, beans. For use in the garden, such a property of siderates as shade tolerance is very important, especially in the shade of winter vetch.
Mulching of the soil can also be attributed to green fertilizers. In organic farming, mulching plays an important role.
Mulch is any organic material that covers the surface of the soil. Its purpose is to preserve moisture, protect the earth from the drying effect of wind and sun, suppress weeds, enrich the soil due to the gradual decomposition of organic matter and its inclusion in soil humus. The layer of mulch should have a thickness of at least 5-8 cm. With its thickness equal to 15 cm, weeds are almost completely suppressed, which eliminates the need for weeding, as well as loosening, since the formation of a crust is prevented.
Under the mulch layer, excellent conditions are created for the nutrition and reproduction of earthworms. True, slugs can accumulate under it. But since they prefer withered greens, they feed mainly on mulch and do not touch vegetable plants.
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Compost is a common and favorite environmentally friendly fertilizer. As you know, composting is a microbiological process of decomposition of plant residues and the synthesis of new organic compounds from them, similar to soil humus. For this process to go in the right direction, certain conditions are necessary: water, air and food. In fertile soil, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen is 11: 1. For the nutrition of plants and fungi, the best ratio, respectively, of the same elements is 25: 1. In crop residues, it is usually 30-70: 1. With a large excess of carbon, the composting process does not begin until the excess content has evaporated in the form of carbon dioxide.
Preparation of liquid fertilizers
Liquid fertilizers are an excellent fertilizer that is well balanced in terms of nutrient content. They can be prepared as follows. Put a few scoops of manure or compost in a hemp bag, add phosphorite, chopped legumes, blood and bone meal, and other materials that you think need to be added. Tie the bag, immerse it in a bucket of water and cover with a lid. Stir the liquid every two days so that the water penetrates into the bag and takes out the nutrients from it. After 1-2 weeks, the extract is a dark brown liquid. It is suitable for watering adult and young plants.
Green fertilizers are also good because they are available to almost everyone. Material costs for their creation are minimal, only diligence is required. But the products obtained with their help will be as clean and healthy as possible.