Table of contents:
Vegetable peas are a valuable and healthy vitamin product
- Features of culture and its agricultural technology
- Soil preparation
- Variety selection and seed preparation
Gardeners usually sow vegetable peas on personal plots. It provides an exceptionally valuable and nutritious product: fresh, canned green, frozen or dried peas.
Features of culture and its agricultural technology
Given the nutritional value and taste of green peas, they are often called "vegetable meat". Freshly boiled or canned green peas contain a large amount of vitamins (PP, B1, B2, C, provitamin A), have a number of essential amino acids for humans (cystine, lysine, arginine, tryptophan, etc.).
Vegetable peas are more demanding on growing conditions than grain peas. And the soil for it needs to be loosened deeper, and it is sown later, because the seeds of brain varieties begin to germinate only at a temperature of 4-8 ° C. At the beginning of the growing season, it grows slowly, therefore it becomes more overgrown with weeds, is affected by diseases and is damaged by pests. For peas in the garden, the best is a dry, open, sunny place with a low level of groundwater. On the newly cultivated area, the soil begins to be prepared in advance. If it is waterlogged, they begin to drain it using spillways around the perimeter of the site and various types of drainage using sand, brushwood, drainage pipes laid in the soil at a depth of 25-30 cm and deeper. To improve clay soils, loosening materials are introduced,organic fertilizers (compost or humus 4-6 kg per 1 m², ordinary sand, wood ash, crushed slag). After that, the soil is prepared, as in a well-developed area.
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Also, on a personal plot, crop rotation must be observed. If one crop or crops belonging to the same botanical family is grown in one place for several years, then it can be seen that every year the harvest becomes less and less, and the plants grow weakened and are increasingly exposed to diseases, damage by pests. This is due to the accumulation in the soil of pathogenic microbes and pests characteristic of this crop. After all, each botanical family has its own pathogens that do not affect or affect plants of other families.
In addition to division according to botanical characteristics, there is a division of garden crops according to the degree of nutritional requirements. Thanks to crop rotation, nutrients and moisture are more fully utilized, since the root systems of different crops lie at different depths. In the simplest case, the vegetable garden can be divided into three parts and the crops alternate over the years in the following order: 1 year - crops that are well fertilized with organic and mineral fertilizers and demanding soil fertility: vegetables from the pumpkin family, leaf crops, cabbage; 2 years - peas, which make good use of organic fertilizers applied under the previous crop, improve and enrich the soil with nitrogen for the following vegetables; 3 years old - root crops are placed with little nutritional requirements. However, based on the biological characteristics of peas,it should not be placed in the same location earlier than four years later. Therefore, the household plot must be divided into four parts and the crop of early potatoes must be introduced into the crop rotation. Then the crop rotation looks like this:
- potatoes + good organic fertilizer;
- crops demanding fertility;
- peas and other legumes;
- low-demand vegetables.
They begin to cook it for sowing peas in the fall. The site is freed from plant debris. Non-seeded weeds and remnants of the previous crop without traces of disease are used for composting. The rest of the weeds are burned. Then fertilizer is applied and dug up. NS Tsyganok (1995) proposes the following method of digging the soil manually to the depth of two shovel bayonets (35-40 cm). The first bayonet of the soil of the first furrow is put on the side of the road, the second bayonet of the furrow (sub-arable) is shovel, ash (400-500 g / m²), humus (3-4 kg / m²), mineral fertilizers - superphosphate (20- 40 g / m²) and potassium chloride (10-20 g / m²). The first bayonet from the second furrow is placed on the loosened and mixed with fertilizer bottom layer, and so on. The top layer is also fertilized with mineral fertilizers in the same quantities.
If the soil has increased acidity (this is indicated by a podzol layer at a shallow depth and the presence of many plants such as horsetail, sorrel, sedge), then liming is required (200-400 g / m²) during the winter. Instead of limestone, you can use slaked lime, chalk, wood ash, dolomite flour, eggshells. The application rate for slaked lime is 1.35 times less than for limestone, and ash is 5-10 times more. Chalk and dolomite flour are equated with limestone. Most of the limestone materials should not be applied at the same time as fresh manure in order not to lose nitrogen. Such tillage provides access to moisture and air in deep layers, creates favorable conditions for the life of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and beneficial microorganisms that decompose organic matter, destroys pests and pathogens,clears the area from weeds
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Variety selection and seed preparation
In winter, you need to stock up on seeds if you will not sow those that are obtained on your site. Fifteen varieties of vegetable peas are currently zoned in the North-West region. Four of them are sugar varieties, that is, their beans are completely used for food, there is no parchment layer in their valves. And there are also 11 varieties of shelling - green seeds are used for food purposes, they are husked from beans, in which there is a parchment layer. The most interesting of them:
Inexhaustible 195 - medium early variety, before the first collection of beans 50-60 days, before seed ripening 75-85 days. Dessert variety. The plant is semi-dwarf. Sugar beans, 7-10 cm long. Brain seeds, sweet with a delicate taste. Weight of 1000 seeds 220-260 g. Productivity 1.5-2 kg / m².
Sugar 2 - medium late grade. The plant is semi-dwarf. Pod straight, 7-9 cm long, pointed, without parchment layer. The number of seeds in a pod is 7-9. Purpose - sugar scoops are used fresh.
Zhegalova 112 is a medium late variety, from germination to the first harvest 60-75 days, to ripening 90-110 days. Long-stemmed, requires a garter. Dessert variety. The collection period is 12-16 days. Pods are sugar, xiphoid with a blunt end, 11-14 cm long. Seeds are cerebral, often angular, wrinkled, gray-green. The mass of 1000 seeds is 250-270 g. Productivity is 0.6-0.8 kg / m².
Alpha is an early ripening variety, from germination to biological maturity 65-75 days. The plant is semi-dwarf. Pods from slightly curved to saber, 7 cm long, peeling. Seeds are brain, square-compressed, yellow-green. The mass of 1000 seeds is 200-250 g. Maturing is amicable. Differs in high taste. Productivity 1-1.5 kg / m². Weakly affected by diseases.
Adagumsky is a medium early variety, from germination to biological ripeness 75-85 days. The plant is semi-dwarf, 75 cm high. Up to the first inflorescence there are 13-15 internodes. The beans are peeling, straight with a blunt tip, dark green. Brain seeds, 1000 seeds weight 200-220 g. Good quality peas. Productivity 2-2.5 kg / m².
Voskhod is a mid-season pea variety, from germination to biological ripeness of 85-95 days. The plant is medium-sized, 60-80 cm high. Hulling beans, slightly curved with a pointed tip, dark green, 7-8 cm long. Weight of 1000 seeds 180-200 g. Brain seeds, compressed vertically. Productivity 1.5-2 kg / m². The use of these varieties guarantees the receipt of our own seeds for sowing in our region. All zoned varieties have cerebral seeds with increased sugar content and low starch content, which is very valuable for canning, since they leave the can solution clear.
Also, on personal plots in the region, non-zoned, but very good varieties can be used. Such as the Miracle of Kelvidon 1378, Little Miracle, Belladonna 136, Emerald, Karaganda 1053, Sugar Brovtsyna 28 and others. It should be noted peas Soup spatula 181. The variety is early ripening - only 45 days pass before the first bean harvest. The collection is stretched over a long period. Stem of medium length 70-110 cm. Seeds are yellowish-pink, medium-sized. Spatulas are delicious in soups and cans.
A variety of vegetable peas Ambrosia. The height of the stem is 60-70 cm. The color of the bean and seeds is green. A young sugar spatula with rudimentary peas is used for food. Gloriosa. The variety is fruitful, early maturing. Plants of medium height. The seeds are light green and have a pleasant sweet taste. The variety is intended for canning and freezing
Read the second part of the article:
Sowing peas; crop care; harvesting peas.