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Video: Growing Eggplants In Greenhouses, Pest Control
Read the previous part. ← Botanical characteristics of eggplants, growing conditions
Growing eggplants in greenhouses
Eggplant, as already mentioned, is demanding on heat, and for its fruits ripening a long period is required - about 120 days: slightly less for early ripening (100-110 days) and slightly more for mid-ripening (130-140 days). Moreover, the average daily temperature should be at least 12-15 ° C. That is why you can get a stable and large harvest only under the film.
The most optimal and affordable film cover is an unheated film greenhouse. Using additional shelters from spunbond, eggplant seedlings can be planted only in mid-May, when the soil warms up well and the temperature at a depth of 15-20 cm will be at least 10-15 ° C. That is why in order to get good, strong seedlings in the bud phase, it is necessary to sow eggplants from February 1-15, so that it has an age of about 70 days.
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Before sowing, the seeds are etched with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for 10 minutes, followed by rinsing them in clean water. Since the February sowing requires mandatory artificial lighting with fluorescent lamps such as LB-40, LD-40 and others, it is more economical to use the "shkolki" method. Therefore, the seeds that have grown are sown in boxes or cuvettes with a distance of 3-4 cm a row from a row and 1-1.5 cm in a row.
The boxes are filled with pre-prepared soil, consisting of 1 part of sod land, 1 part of humus and 2 parts of garden land on which legumes were grown. The seeds are covered with the same soil (with an admixture of a small amount of sand) with a layer of 1-2 cm. After sowing, they are immediately watered, and the box is placed in a warm place. The temperature should be 16-26 ° C.
As soon as shoots begin to appear, the box is placed in a bright place and illumination is provided for 12-14 hours (minimum). The temperature in the first three days is reduced to 13-16 ° C. After three days, the seedlings, and later the seedlings, are brought up at a temperature regime: during the day on a sunny day, 20-26 ° C, on cloudy - up to 15-20 ° C, and at night they are lowered to 12-15 ° C. Failure to comply with these conditions leads to the fact that the seedlings are stretched, weaken and as a result they may even die, you will have to repeat the sowing.
Eggplant seedlings will be of better quality, with wider leaves, if they are grown cut one plant at a time, rather than two, as is recommended for tomatoes and peppers. Therefore, pots with a diameter of 6-8 cm can be used for eggplant seedlings. The composition of the soil for humus pots is the same as for sowing on a school.
With weak growth of eggplants, they need to be fed with a solution of calcium nitrate (4 g per 1 liter of water). After feeding, the plants are sprayed to wash off the fertilizer from the leaves.
Seedling care consists in regular watering (preferably in the morning from 9 to 11 o'clock), loosening, airing, keeping the glass windows clean. It is necessary to protect the seedlings from premature lignification of the stems, which occurs when the soil in pots dries out, and to prevent the pampering of plants, which occurs at high temperatures and excessive moisture.
Before planting seedlings, it is imperative to disinfect the land, greenhouses and equipment. This will protect plants from diseases and pests. Wooden parts of greenhouses are disinfected with a 10% bleach infusion or a thick solution of freshly slaked lime, or a 15% solution of copper sulfate.
Eggplants grow well and give a high yield only on highly fertile, rich in organic matter, well aerated soils. In the conditions of the Northwest region, these plants painfully tolerate excess moisture. That is why, even in greenhouses, planting eggplants on steam ridges will be justified.
For this, furrows are made at a distance of 90 or 80 cm (preferably in the direction from north to south). Fresh manure is placed in these furrows, then biofuel is piled up by 15-17 cm. On such steam ridges, two-sided planting of plants is carried out with a distance of 30 cm in a row. Eggplants are planted under a scoop or in pre-prepared deep holes with a diameter of 10-12 cm, which are covered with earth. Planting is done a little deeper than the seedlings grew: deep planting of eggplants is painful. Plants should be planted upright and well compressed with soil. The wells are watered with warm water. After planting, they are sprinkled with loose earth.
Within 10-12 days after transplanting, the plants are painful and grow slowly, since at this time their root system takes root. To help them, it is necessary to do a shallow (5 cm) loosening (for better air access to the root system), and it is necessary to wait with watering.
Seedlings are planted in unheated greenhouses on May 15-20, but during this period the danger of spring frosts remains, and if necessary, the seedlings inside the greenhouse should be covered with a second film using metal arcs, and abundant irrigation should be carried out by sprinkling.
Eggplant, like pepper, is grown without forming, but with a garter on a twine of two or three main stems. However, as needed, thinning of the vegetative mass is carried out (removal of lateral sterile shoots, lower yellowed leaves). When the plants take root, they are fed with a 0.5% solution of ecofoska or crystalline.
Water the eggplant before flowering once a week at the rate of 10-12 l / m². During flowering and fruiting, plants are watered at the root 2-3 times a week, depending on weather conditions.
Top dressing is carried out regularly, every two weeks, with a solution of slurry or poultry droppings with the addition of 20-40 g of superphosphate per 10 liters of solution, alternating feeding with a solution of one crystalin or 30 g ekofoski per 10 liters of water. Once a month, top dressing is carried out with the addition of microelements (1-2 g of boric acid, 1.5-2 g of copper sulfate, 0.5-1.5 g of zinc sulfate, 0.5-1.5 g of manganese sulfate per 10 liters solution) or wood ash (50-70 g). Fertilization with carbon dioxide is very effective, for which water-liquefied manure is poured under the plants.
Systematic ventilation of greenhouses ensures good plant development. Pollen in eggplant is heavy, and self-pollination in high humidity greenhouses is difficult, so it is necessary to carry out artificial pollination: pollen is taken from the mature yellow anthers of an expanding flower with a brush and applied to the stigma of the pistil of another flower.
Eggplant fruits reach technical or consumer ripeness, depending on the variety and growing conditions, 25-40 days after flowering. By this time, the pulp of the fruits is still tender with unhardened seeds, and the fruits already weigh 100 grams or more. Usually collection is possible in the first half of July. Marketable fruits must be carefully cut off with the stalk, without damaging the plants. After all, an eggplant has a strong, lignified stalk, and it is very difficult to separate the fruit from the stem without a knife, without damaging the branches. The fruits are carefully collected in baskets.
At high temperatures and in a dry room, eggplants lose moisture, shrink, so the collected fruits are stored in a cool place.
A lot of nutrients are consumed for the formation of seeds, and the growth of fruits that set later is delayed. Therefore, when growing eggplants for consumer purposes, marketable fruits should be harvested regularly - every five days. Their regular collection contributes to higher yields, reduces ovary shedding. And the entire crop must be harvested on time, before the onset of frost.
Protecting eggplants from diseases and pests
Obtaining consistently high yields of eggplants with the best qualities largely depends on the timely control of diseases and pests.
Black leg. The causative agents of blackleg are fungi from the genus Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, etc. This disease is especially pronounced at high soil and air humidity, as well as at low temperatures. It affects eggplants mainly in the seedling period. When severely damaged, the plants die. Control measures: adjust temperature and watering. The soil must be dried, loosened and sprinkled with wood ash.
Diseases of wilting. The cause of plant wilting is most often fungal diseases - verticillium, sclerocinia and fusarium. A large accumulation of these fungi in the vessels of the stems impedes the movement of water with salts and assimilates through the plant, as a result of which it weakens and may die. The mycelium of sclerocinia also affects the outer parts of the eggplant stems.
Control measures. Solanaceae are placed in the old place no earlier than after 4-5 years. Sick wilted plants are removed and burned. Thickened planting, optimal water regime, regular loosening of the soil in the aisles and rows are effective in preventing wilting. It is advisable to use varieties that are partially resistant to this disease.
Brown leaf spot. In conditions of high air humidity, spotting of leaves and fruits develops on eggplants and rotting of the latter from the defeat of a fungal disease - an alternative: the affected areas darken and become covered with mold.
Control measures. Spraying plants with 1% Bordeaux liquid.
Leaf spot and dry rot of fruits in eggplants are caused by the fungus pholypsis. Dark brown dots with small spores inside are formed on the leaves and fruits. Eggplant leaves develop septoria - white spot and macrosporiosis - dry spot.
Control measures: compliance with crop rotation, seed dressing. Plants are strengthened with top dressing of organomineral fertilizers, sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid.
Late blight. A harmful fungal disease that affects leaves, stems and fruits. The reason is excessive air humidity, dew and fog, the close location of potato plantings.
Control measures. After planting the seedlings in a permanent place, after 20 days, they are sprayed with a solution of potassium permanganate (0.1 g is taken per 1 liter of water). 12 days after the first treatment, the second is carried out with copper oxychloride (for 10 liters of water, 30 g of the preparation). Before flowering, treatment with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid. It is necessary to ventilate the greenhouse in sunny weather during the daytime.
Stolbur. A disease that affects all plants of the Solanaceae family. The leaves of the affected plants acquire a light color, corrugation, shrink, curl upward, wither and fall off. The internodes are shortened. Plant leaves become discolored and dry out. The optimal conditions for the development of the pathogen are high temperatures (25-28 ° C) and high humidity. The disease is transmitted by leafhoppers.
Control measures. Destruction of leafhoppers and weeds on which they feed (sow thistle, field bindweed, etc.), creation of optimal conditions for the growth and development of plants; use of post-resistant varieties.
Aphids are the most dangerous pest. Causes significant damage to seedlings and adult plants. Up to 20 generations can develop during the season. It sucks out juices from plants, causing curling of leaves, drying out of flowers, underdevelopment of fruits.
Control measures. Infusion and decoction of tobacco dust. In 10 liters of water, 400 g of tobacco dust is insisted during the day. Then the infusion is boiled for two hours and filtered. After cooling, for each liter of broth add 1 liter of water and 40 g of soap. Spraying with 10% karbofos emulsion concentrate (60-75 g per 10 l of water). The last processing time is 30 days before harvest.
Spider mite. Ticks are attached to the underside of the leaf, tightening it with a thin web. When the juice is sucked out by the tick, the leaf becomes covered with brown spots and dries up.
Control measures. Keep planting clean. Powder the leaves with ground sulfur. Processing with a solution, which is prepared as follows: take a glass of garlic and onions, minced through a meat grinder, dandelion leaves, a tablespoon of liquid soap and dilute in 10 liters of water. It is filtered, separating the pulp, and sprayed at any stage of development.
Whitefly. - a small insect (1-1.5 mm), yellowish with two pairs of powdery white wings. Occurs in film greenhouses that are not disinfected, or is introduced along with seedlings. Damages leaves by sucking juice out of them. In addition, sooty mushrooms settle on the sticky sugary secretions of the whitefly, covering the leaves with a black bloom - black.
Control measures. Use of highly effective insectoacaricide "Pegasus". It is safe for birds and beneficial insects. Can be used to combat aphids and ticks. The preparations "Confidor" and "Phosbecid" have proven themselves well.