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Fragrant Dill: Varieties And Cultivation Techniques
Fragrant Dill: Varieties And Cultivation Techniques

Video: Fragrant Dill: Varieties And Cultivation Techniques

Video: Fragrant Dill: Varieties And Cultivation Techniques
Video: DILL: Growing it, Planting it and Using it. GARDENING WITH GLYNIS 2023, October

The fragrant aroma of dill floated over the garden

Allspice dill
Allspice dill

Probably, every gardener has this plant on his site and appreciates its juicy fragrant greens, as well as ripe dried fruits containing specific essential oils. Dill fell in love with many peoples, each of them gave it its own (national) name. Local names for fragrant dill (or garden dill), ukrip, coper, tsap, crop, sew, shivit (Azerb.), Samit (Armenian), Kama (Georgian), Till (Est.), Mayrar (Mold.)

Fragrant dill - it has a vast homeland - India and the countries of the eastern coast of the Mediterranean (and, possibly, Egypt), where it was cultivated before our era due to its pleasant aroma and delicate taste of its fresh young greenery. It appeared in Western and Northern Europe since the 16th century. Now dill remains the most common spicy-aromatic crop: it is cultivated in almost all countries of the world where the climate suits it.

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We can say that he became a cosmopolitan: in natural conditions it can also be found in Asia Minor, North and South America, North Africa. In Russia, dill has been known in culture since the 10th century, it is ubiquitous in household plots. In a wild form, he is met in abandoned gardens, on the sides of fields and roads.

Dill is an annual herb with an erect, cylindrical, single (branched) smooth stem (70-200 cm high) of dark green color and a thin, fusiform root. He has pinnately dissected with bluish-green lobules, the lower ones are petiolate, the upper ones are sessile on white-bordered sheaths. Dill (cross-pollinated) blooms in July-August. Its inflorescences are a complex umbrella with small yellow flowers.

It blooms especially amicably and forms good seeds in hot, sunny weather with regular watering. The ripe fruit is a flat (clearly ribbed) two-seed (oval), consisting of two semi-fruits. The mass of 1000 full-weight selective seeds is 4-5 g. Depending on maturation and storage conditions, dill seeds remain viable for 3-6 years. It is believed that dill gives a greater yield of full-fledged seeds during winter sowing.

Dill agrotechnics

Allspice dill
Allspice dill

Some gardeners allocate a separate bed to this plant, others use its self-sowing, dill is available in a continuous or row method. The most common sowing of dill on the ridges with three ribbons: two adjacent rows in each ribbon. The distance between these rows is 5-8 cm, between the ribbons is 25-27 cm. The seeding depth is 2-3 cm. To provide the family with dill greens throughout the growing season, gardeners sow dill at several times with an interval of 10 days. Although many people consider dill to be undemanding to growing conditions, you need to know that it has increased requirements for light.

It is advisable to place it in a bright place, since in low light, in plants in the shade or when plants are thickened, the stems are strongly stretched, the leaves lose their bright color (the edges turn pale and turn yellow). At the same time, the stem is weakened, the aroma (amount of essential oils) decreases, and the content of vitamins decreases. When grown in sunny areas, the plants are more fragrant, which is why in greenhouses it has a rather faint smell. It is also better for him to pick up well-cultivated sandy or light loamy soils with a sufficient content of humus, non-saline, non-acidic, clean of weeds.

On household plots, dill sowing is practiced both in early spring and before winter. To obtain more friendly shoots and accelerate seed germination in spring, they are sown with seeds previously soaked in warm (constantly changed several times a day) water for 2-3 days. The biological feature of even full-fledged seeds of this culture is the ability to germinate after two or even three years, being constantly in the soil.

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Allspice dill
Allspice dill

Experts attribute this phenomenon to the presence in them of substances contained in the shell and inhibiting germination, and also, possibly, to an insufficient period of winter stratification. Due to the high content of essential oils, dill seeds germinate only 3-4 weeks after sowing. In this regard, it is more advisable to sow dill in late autumn. Podwinter sowing of dill (with dry seeds) is preferable because they germinate much earlier than those introduced in spring, and from these plants the greens are harvested 2-2.5 weeks earlier.

For the emergence of seedlings of this cold-resistant plant, a temperature of 3-4 ° C is sufficient (optimal for seed germination is 16 … 18 ° C), they rather appear in areas previously prepared and warmed up by the sun. Seedlings are also able to easily withstand spring frosts (up to -5 … -6 ° С). Dill can grow in relatively cool weather, but the most intensive development of adult plants occurs at 18 … 22 ° C.

The optimum temperature for flowering and ripening seeds should be at least 20 ° C. When sown in the first half of May, seedlings appear in 17-19 days, budding begins in late June - early July, flowering in July, and the seeds ripen in the third decade of August. For seed purposes, it is safer to leave the fruits from the central umbrellas.

Caring for a dill bed is simple: loosening the soil in the aisles, removing weeds, feeding and timely watering. Characterized by an increased moisture-evaporating ability, dill does not like drought: the plants can then dry out on the vine. However, excess moisture reduces both the yield of raw materials and the content of essential oil in it.

Dill is responsive to organic and mineral fertilizers. Its special feature is the removal of a large amount of nutrients from the soil, therefore, in the spring, after the emergence of seedlings, nitrogen fertilizers are applied (10g / m2), and with 2-3 true leaves they are thinned by 8-10 cm and fed with potassium and phosphorus fertilizers (10- 15 g / m²). However, there is no need to get carried away with fertilizing, since, according to some experts, dill belongs to such green crops, which are prone to accumulate excessive amounts of nitrates when applying excessive nitrogen fertilizers. They believe that most of them are in the stems, and less in the leaf mass.

Dill varieties

Allspice dill
Allspice dill

According to professionals, you need to select your own grade for each site. The most popular among gardeners is the early maturing Gribovsky. Due to its plasticity (unpretentiousness to temperature extremes and resistance to disease), it grows well in all gardeners. Its juicy greens can be consumed even in areas with the shortest summer. In the Non-Black Earth Region, it is advisable to sow this variety every 15-20 days in order to get greens in a timely manner throughout the season.

The mid-early variety Umbrella is close in early maturity to Gribovsky, but differs in a slightly larger yield due to large pinnately dissected leaves. In the middle lane, the early-ripening Kaskelensky and the mid-season Kharkovsky 85 varieties ripen perfectly, and the medium-late Lesnogorsky variety gives twice more greenery than Gribovsky, its leaves retain their aroma and presentation for two weeks longer. He is also not afraid of the cool summer, and the plants ripen so powerful that large and clean leaves can be removed from them even in the fall when the seeds ripen.

Dill is characterized by increased sensitivity to fungal and bacterial diseases.

Winter dill harvest

Some lovers of fresh greenery grow this plant at home using south-facing windows. The seeds are sown in late February when the days are brighter. To speed up germination, they are soaked for 3-4 days in warm water, changing it several times a day (then the seedlings appear a week earlier). Seeds sown in boxes are covered with foil or glass. Ready-to-eat greens appear in about 40-55 days.

Dill is one of the most ancient aromatic plants. In this capacity, its greens and fruits were used by the ancient Egyptians and Greeks. So, in ancient Greek papyri, it is recommended as a remedy for headaches and strengthening of blood vessels.

Cleaning, storage, use of dill

Allspice dill
Allspice dill

Dill seeds contain 2.5-5% essential oil, fatty oil (15-18%), proteins (14-15%), leaves - essential oil (0.56-1.5% dry weight), carotene (6.25mg%), vitamin B1 (0.14mg%), C (135-170mg%), P, PP, flavonoids.

The essential oil has a typical pungent dill smell: its main components are carvone, fellandrene, dillapiol, terpinene. The fruits also contain calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, silver, selenium, nickel, zinc, copper, manganese, iodine, aluminum, barium, chromium, boron.

In our zone, they try to eat dill fresh throughout the summer-autumn period. For the greatest yield of greens, dill is recommended to be harvested at a young age (the beginning of the budding phase) - at a plant height of up to 25 cm (from 1 m² of sowing, you can get 0.8-1 kg of green mass of dill). It is consumed fresh or dried (much less often it is canned using vinegar or salt). If you prepare greens in the morning, it will be better to keep fresh for a day, and placed in a plastic bag in the refrigerator can be stored for up to 3-4 days. For quite a long time (up to 10 days), it can be stored if sprinkled with water and slightly ventilated.

Drying of raw materials is carried out in a shady, well-ventilated room at a temperature of no more than 30 ° C, crushing and spreading it in a thin loose layer, and periodically stirring. Dried herbs are stored in tightly closed jars (no more than 3 years).

After budding, the plant begins to direct nutrients for the ripening of seeds, which are characterized by the strongest aroma due to their high content of essential (up to 4%) and fatty (20%) oils. An increase in the aromaticity of dill is observed in sunny weather and after heavy rainfall, and a decrease is observed with the introduction of an excessive amount of nitrogen fertilizers and with sudden changes in day and night temperatures.

For canning and pickling cucumbers, pickling cabbage and other pickles, dill is harvested during the period of seed ripening. When harvesting plants, the stems and umbrellas with fruits are carefully cut off, they are tied into small bunches, in which the seeds are dried up, hanging these sheaves in the barn. Since the seeds from the bunches crumble very strongly as they dry, burlap or paper is laid out under the cut plants. After ripening, the seeds are threshed. Much less often for pickling vegetables, umbrellas are taken in milky-wax ripeness. For medicinal purposes, the herb is harvested during the flowering period and ripe fruits.

Fruits and herbs of dill are widely used in many branches of the food industry - canning, fish, dairy, alcoholic beverages, as well as in soap production and medicine. The stem, leaves, inflorescences and fruits are used in cooking.

As a seasoning, fresh leaves are put in salads, soups, various vegetable, meat, fish, mushroom dishes and pie fillings. As a spice, it is a part of many aromatic mixtures, it is added in the production of spicy and pickled herring, curd mass and processed curds.

During the flowering period, the whole plant is used in pickles and in canning various vegetables (especially cucumber and tomato fruits), in the preparation of pickles and sauerkraut (dill softens the bitterness of the latter). In recent decades, it began to be used for homemade winter cuisine, specially preparing dill oil and its alcohol solution (alcohol essence). These compounds are characterized by a high concentration, so they are added to ready-made dishes in small (drop) doses (1-2 drops per 1 liter of liquid).

Dill, like other spicy vegetables, should be cut on porcelain or ceramic boards, and not on wooden boards, which absorb juices and keep them in themselves for a long time; its smell interferes with cutting other foods. Dill is sensitive to high temperatures, so it should be placed in a hot dish (for example, when preparing broths and stewing meat) when cooked, when the pan is removed from the heat (or in 5-10 minutes). In a hot (but not boiling) state, this spice will give off its aroma within 3-4 minutes. Dill fruits and greens are used to flavor tea, cookies, fillings.

Dill doctor

Allspice dill
Allspice dill

It has long been used as a medicine in traditional medicine. In medieval Europe, dill was recommended for choking coughs, diseases of the stomach and intestines, flatulence, sluggish digestion, as well as for headaches, chills, ulcers, wounds and to increase milk supply in nursing mothers. For example, a decoction of fruits was used for liver diseases, abdominal pain, decoction of herbs and fruits - for inflammation of the bladder. A decoction of the leaves is used for lotions for eye strain.

Now, in many countries of the world, dill fruits are used as an antispasmodic agent, toning the gastrointestinal tract, enhancing lactation, soothing and having a weak hypnotic effect for insomnia and colic of various origins. They are recommended as an anti-hemorrhoidal remedy for diabetes, obesity, salt deposits and bronchitis. Due to the high content of vitamins and iron, they are used for anemia.

Fruits and herbs can be used in perfumery - in home cosmetics (in the manufacture of lotions, masks, compresses for irritated, dry and aging skin). It is a part of the "dill water" used as a carminative for flatulence, to improve appetite and digestion, increase bile secretion and stomach colic in children. Method of its preparation: 2 teaspoons of crushed seeds are poured with 2 cups of boiling water, insisted for 10 minutes in a closed vessel, filtered and taken half a glass half an hour before meals (three times a day).

If the greens are dried well (while maintaining their light green color), they will retain all their nutritional qualities. You should know that dry dill, like fresh dill, has a beneficial effect on the digestive system. The dried raw materials are kept in dark glass jars with a tightly screwed lid, which are then placed in a dark cabinet, since the spices are destroyed by light, as well as by the access of moisture and air.

In this state, after three weeks of keeping, the spicy herb develops (as if infused) a strong aroma. For this reason, you should quickly get the raw materials out of the can, and close the lid tightly, otherwise all the aroma will disappear pretty soon. Unfortunately, few gardeners and truck farmers are still harvesting dried dill greens for the winter.

Official medicine has confirmed the healing properties of dill and introduces it into the composition of many medicines. So, preparations from dill relieve vascular spasms, slow down putrefactive processes in the intestines and reduce gas formation, lower intracranial and blood pressure, improve appetite and digestion, calm the nervous system, and help with liver disease.

Dill juice is especially useful for the eyes: in combination with carrot juice, it reduces the effect of "night blindness". A decoction of greens with seeds is recommended in case of disruption of the bladder. It is believed that if an excess of table salt is harmful to a patient, he can compensate for its lack with a good portion of dill. Considering the caloric content of dill, about 28-30 kcal / 100 g, experts have calculated that the annual rate of use of this greenery is 0.8-1 kg.

A decoction and infusion of dill is also used in veterinary medicine.

On a personal plot it is worth sowing this plant not only for the sake of its green mass. Although dill is practically not visited by bees during flowering, it is a good food source for a number of beneficial insects (parasitic parasites, tahini flies, predatory sirphid flies, lacewing, ladybugs), which feed on garden and vegetable garden pests. So, flowering dill is visited by more than 30 species of sirfid flies, the larvae of which lead a predatory lifestyle among the colonies of aphids on vegetable, fodder, grain and other agricultural crops, they are, like wasps, parasites of the caterpillars of the cabbage scoop and many other pests.

In general, dill is second only to coriander in terms of the variety of species of beneficial insects, but in terms of the total number of entomophages it surpasses all other nectar plants (phacelia, fireweed, white mustard, spring rape, peppermint, oregano, common caraway, lemon balm and lemon catnip, motherwort, thyme and etc.).