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Video: Vegetative Propagation Of Onions
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Vegetative propagation of onions
There are varieties of onions that are not propagated by seeds, but annually small bulbs, 3-5 cm in diameter (samples) are taken from the crop, and then a large bulb is obtained from them. These include ancient local bows in the northern part of the Non-Chernozem zone: Vologda, Kirov, Leningrad, Novgorod, Pskov and other regions. These varieties form 10-25 bulbs in a nest.
It should be noted that when grown from seeds, some varieties of Estonia and Latvia give a fairly large marketable bulb only after 3-5 years. In the first year, a rather large set is grown from the seeds of such onions, in the second year - samples and a small amount of marketable onions, and only in the 3-5th year these varieties usually give a small number of samples, and mainly a large onion. For planting, large healthy bulbs are selected, which then give 5-7 bulbs per nest.
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Since these onions are multi-nested, their agricultural techniques are somewhat different from growing onions from sets. They are grown in very fertile areas. The soil is cultivated, as well as under onion-turnip, from seedlings. In autumn, up to 6-10 kg / m² of humus is introduced under vegetatively propagated onions. In the spring, the soil is filled with mineral fertilizers; during the growing season, 1-2 dressings are made.
Planted on a ridge 4-5 rows. Inside the row, the bulb is placed at a distance of 15-25 cm from the bulb. The distance between the bulbs during planting depends on the size of the planting material, as well as on the type of plants. Vegetatively propagated onions can have compact or spreading leaves. A too rare arrangement of plants causes a strong development of the vegetative mass, and they form larger bulbs, but they ripen much later or do not have time to ripen at all: in addition, the land is used uneconomically.
With strong thickening, the plants shade each other, stretch out and begin to form the crop earlier, forming small bulbs. Large bulbs that form more plants in the nest are planted less often, small ones more often. In addition, the branching ability of the bulbs should be taken into account: multi-nested varieties should be thickened less than small-nested ones. We must strive to plant the plants so that their leaves cover the soil surface.
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Bulbs of various sizes are usually formed in the nest - 1-5 cm in diameter. When planted, large bulbs of vegetatively propagated varieties produce a larger number of bulbs in the nest than small ones, and their mass is greater, but planting such bulbs is unprofitable. It is better to use medium sized specimens for landing. They form large and medium-sized bulbs and some small ones in the nest. A small number of rather large ones are formed from small bulbs.
In addition, large bulbs often shoot off even with a slight violation of the storage regime or with early planting (sometimes by 70-90%). Medium-sized bulbs are best suited as planting material, as they provide the highest yield of marketable products and keep well in the winter, while small ones dry quickly during storage and, in addition, they form a small number of large bulbs during planting. nest.
The planting time is determined in such a way that the onions get into moist soil and take root faster: in the south of the Leningrad region they are planted on May 5-10, in the northern regions on May 15-30. You should not delay planting the onions, as the spring moisture allows the bulbs to take root better. Delay in planting can lead to drying out of the soil, and the rooting of the bulbs takes a long time.
This results in more rapid development of the leaves compared to the root system, with the result that this mismatch significantly reduces the yield. With a delay in planting of 1.5-2 weeks due to insufficiently good and late rooting, as well as slow development of plants, a large number of small bulbs such as sets, as well as unripe onions (up to 30%) are formed.
Before planting, the samples are sorted and trimmed to the shoulders. This technique contributes to the accelerated appearance of leaves, their more harmonious regrowth, but we must remember that on the cut surface of the onion, putrefactive bacteria can find themselves excellent conditions for the development, of which there are a lot in the soil. Good results are obtained by soaking the bulbs in a solution of micronutrient fertilizers - 1 tablet per bucket, or potassium permanganate - 1%.
Soaking the bulbs in a 0.1-0.2% solution of copper sulfate not only increases the resistance of plants to fungal diseases, but also enriches the plants with copper, the lack of which is more pronounced on acidic soils. For disinfection from the pathogens of downy mildew, the bulbs are heated for 8 hours at a temperature of 40-42 ° C.
The bulbs are planted on the shoulders. After planting, the rows can be mulched with humus or peat in a layer of 1-2 cm. 1.5-2.5 kg are consumed per 1 m². In the Vologda, Kirov regions, in some areas of the Novgorod region, experienced gardeners cover the onion plantings with fresh manure on top, with a layer of 4-6 cm (6-8 kg / m²).
At the same time, moisture is retained, the soil temperature increases, which accelerates the emergence of seedlings and the initial growth of leaves. Planting bulbs can be done 7-10 days earlier. After the leaves grow back to a height of 3-5 cm, the manure is raked from the bulbs into the furrows and mixed with the soil. You should not delay with this work, so as not to damage the young fragile leaves.
If bulbs are found on the surface of the ridges, which are squeezed out of the soil after regrowth, they cannot be pushed into the soil - the roots will break. These plants must be carefully sprinkled with loose, damp earth.
All care consists of loosening, weeding. It is impossible to loosen very deeply so as not to damage the roots. In early summer, if necessary, plants are watered 1-3 times. Vegetatively propagated varieties of onions need water no less than when grown from seedlings. Dryness of the soil, especially at the beginning of plant development, is one of the factors that retards the growth of the vegetative mass and introduces the bulb into a state of forced dormancy, as a result of which the yield is significantly reduced.
Plants are watered abundantly, coinciding with the time of feeding in the main phases of growth and development. It is better to do them in the evening or in cloudy weather. During the ripening of the onion, the plants do not need a lot of water. An excess of it is even harmful, since watering promotes the growth of leaves. Watering doses and timing are set depending on the condition of the plants, soil moisture and weather conditions.
At the first stages of development, the plants use the reserve nutrients of the mother bulb, which they have enough for 20-25 days, after which they intensively switch to root nutrition. Three weeks after planting the bulbs, the first top dressing is done (in g / m²): 15 ammonium nitrate, 10 superphosphate and 5 potassium chloride; during the period of rapid growth of leaves - the second: 15-20 superphosphate and 8-10 potassium chloride, and during the period of mass formation of bulbs - the third (if required) with the same fertilizers as the second.
If arrows appear, it is better to break them, which increases the yield by 40%. It is better to break out the arrows in dry sunny weather, so that the wounds heal faster.
To accelerate the ripening of the bulbs, the soil is carefully raked away from the plants at the beginning of the lodging of the leaves. In wet weather during this period, some of the roots can be carefully trimmed 15-20 days before harvesting. It is necessary to harvest vegetatively propagated onion varieties in the conditions of the Leningrad region before the onset of rainy weather. The best cleaning period is the second half of August (15-25). After pulling out from the soil, the bulbs in the nest must be divided, then after ripening they will have a more even, rounded shape. It is advisable to dry onions in the garden under the sun, but in the conditions of changeable weather at the end of August, this is not always possible. Plants, together with foliage, are placed under a canopy in a well-ventilated area and dried.
To prevent the leaves from prying, you need to spread the onion in a thin layer and stir it constantly. When the leaves are dry, it is thoroughly cleaned. In this case, special attention should be paid to the bottom, as it may contain larvae or egg-laying of onion flies. Experienced amateurs, when processing bulbs in autumn, even peel them "white". Healthy, ripe bulbs are laid for storage, and for any reason unsuitable for this should be immediately used for food.
Some hobbyists cut off the leaves when harvesting, then ripen the bulbs. This is not worth doing, because, firstly, part of the crop is lost, and secondly, the onion that has ripened during harvesting with leaves is protected from pathogens, while when cutting leaves, pathogens of onion neck rot, as well as bacteriosis, enter the wounds, which, in turn, leads to large losses of onions during storage.
For food purposes, it is better to store onions at a temperature of 0 … -1 ° C and an air humidity of 60-70%, then the onions will dry out less and become depleted. It can be stored in boxes with a layer of 20-30 cm. The bulbs of vegetatively propagated varieties are well stored, braided in braids, until September of the next year, even at a temperature of 18-20 ° C. Onions selected for seed purposes are stored at room temperature (18-20 ° C), otherwise a significant percentage of plants after planting may give an arrow.
When growing vegetatively propagated onions, it is necessary to take into account the place of purchase of the planting material. The biological characteristics of varieties associated with origin affect their agricultural technology. Bows of the Pskov, Vologda regions, Latvia respond well to soil fertility, increasing productivity by 2-3 times. Local varieties of Kirov, Novgorod, Leningrad, Tver regions, Karelia are more responsive to lighting conditions and daylight hours.
Vegetatively propagated varieties are capable of producing a high yield of bulbs with good soil filling and good care. Experienced gardeners get up to 5-7 kg of bulbs from 1 m².
Read the end of "Growing Green Onions" →
All parts of the article "Growing onions in the North-West region"
- Part 1. Biological characteristics of onions
- Part 2. Interesting varieties of onions
- Part 3. Preparing the soil for planting onions
- Part 4. Growing onions through the set
- Part 5. Growing onions from seeds
- Part 6. Vegetative propagation of onions
- Part 7. Growing green onions
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