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Video: Growing Katran, Recipes With Katran
Set aside a bed in the garden for a new valuable plant - katran
We, lovers of spicy food, willingly buy jars of horseradish in the store. At the same time, we don't even know that often these products are made from katran.
So, let's get acquainted: Katran (Grambe L.) is a perennial plant of the Cabbage family (Cruciferous). Of the 33 species of katran, 20 grows in the CIS. Some of them - tartar katran, sea katran, eastern katran, rod - shaped katran - have been introduced into culture and are used as fodder, vegetable, oil, starch and melliferous plants.
In the wild, katran was widespread in the Crimea, on the Kerch Peninsula, but due to the barbaric collection of the population, it almost disappeared from the local flora. This valuable plant can be preserved by introducing it more widely into culture.
Katran is common in Great Britain, Western Europe. In the CIS, it is cultivated in Ukraine, in the republics of the Caucasus. Katran is little known in Russia; it is practically absent on the seed market. It is cultivated locally in the Caucasus, in the Non-Black Earth Region.
They know him only in research institutions, in the departments of vegetable growing of some agricultural universities, and rare amateur vegetable growers exchange seeds with each other. Meanwhile, the four mentioned types of katran are serious competitors to horseradish.
Features of culture
So, katran is a shrub 80-150 cm high. Its stem is erect, branched. The leaves are large, whole, pinnately-divided or notched-lobed, with or without pubescence.
With the onset of stable frosts, the leaves die off, and the main, main root shrinks, due to which the head is drawn into the soil by 3-4 cm. This is what contributes to the good winter hardiness of plants.
In the second year, plants begin to grow back immediately after the soil thaws. In the suburbs of St. Petersburg, by the end of the first decade of May, the katran forms a rosette of 6-10 powerful leaves. About half of the plants go into the hyperactive phase (the rest - in the third year) and bloom in the first decade of June.
In the Leningrad region, the flowering of katran lasts 45-65 days, it is a good honey plant. First, the lower inflorescences of the central loose brush bloom, and then branches of subsequent orders.
Katran is a self-pollinating plant, but it can be cross-pollinated. Ties from 40 to 85% of the fruits. The fruit is a pale yellow pod, consisting of an upper part with one seed and a sterile lower part. In appearance, the fruit is similar to a nut 2-10 mm in diameter. Fruit ripening is extended. Considering that the leaflets of the fruits do not separate (do not open), they are sown with fruits. Seeds are brown, spherical, 1-2 mm in diameter. When ripe, they fall into deep dormancy and do not germinate even in the most favorable conditions.
Seeds germinate only after a long stay in the soil during the cold season, or after artificial stratification. Viability of seeds of katran class 1 - 65%, second - 45%. It is determined only after stratification: after soaking in water at room temperature for two hours, mixed with calcined wet sand (1: 3), placed in a refrigerator at a temperature of 5 ° C, either in a cold basement, or in the ground to a depth of about 20 cm by 90 -100 days. Then they are sown. Unstratified seeds are sown from August to November, shoots appear in spring.
Before sowing, large seeds are selected, disinfected in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, treated with a growth stimulator of the "Zircon" type. In the conditions of the North-West of the Russian Federation, the katran is quite winter-hardy. Seeds germinate at 3-4 ° C. The optimum temperature for katran is 20-25 ° C. He is photophilous, does not tolerate shading. A separate area is allocated for it, although it looks good as a curtain on the lawn.
Katran does not tolerate the close standing of groundwater, low-lying, swampy areas. Optimal for it are soils that are close to neutral in acidity (pH 6.5-7.0).
Katran requires good soil moisture at the beginning of growth, especially during the period of peduncle formation, and then it develops a powerful root system. During the period of seed ripening, it is even good if there is little moisture.
The root crop of the katran is grayish-white, cylindrical, with little branching. It is formed by the proliferation of the central root. Therefore, the seedling method of its reproduction is not used (otherwise it branches heavily and marketable products do not work). With an annual culture, a cylindrical marketable root crop reaches 20 cm in length and 2-3 cm in diameter. Growth buds are formed on the scraps of the root, so katran can be propagated vegetatively. Given the power of the plant, highly fertile, deeply cultivated, loose "garden" soils are required.
In the first half of the growing season, the growth and development of katran is limited by nitrogen, in the second - potassium. Phosphorus is required for the entire growing season.
For a katran, a flat, horizontal section is selected. It is better if the soil is sandy loam or light loamy, air and water tight. Do not place katran after cabbage vegetables, otherwise it will be affected by the keel, damaged by the cabbage fly. The best will be the early vacated areas where high doses of organic matter were introduced under its predecessor (potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, green crops). If fertilizers were not applied, then use humus, compost at the rate of at least 30-50 kg / 100 m2, as well as about 0.9-1.0 kg of nitrogen and phosphorus and 1.8 kg of potassium. Good results are obtained by complex fertilizers with microelements (OMU, Kemira-universal, Kemira-potato (beet), etc.) or a microelement additive. Doses - as for root plants. On acidic soils, lime is added under the predecessor.
Place the katran on dry areas on a flat surface with row spacing of 60-70 cm, or on ridges 140 cm wide in 2-3 rows with a distance between rows of 35-65 cm, between plants - 20-30 cm. It is better to sow more densely and thin out the crops in phase of 2-3 true leaves. The seeds are sown to a depth of 2-4 cm. It is advisable to mulch the sowing with peat, humus, etc., it is useful to add superphosphate or WMD to the rows.
For the first two months, the plants develop very slowly. Therefore, with the emergence of seedlings (late April - early May), they immediately begin to loosen the soil, remove weed seedlings. Katran is fed in the phase of 2-3 and 4-5 true leaves with a mullein solution or complex fertilizers with microelements.
It is better to clean the Tatar katran in the fall of the first year. With an annual culture, it is harvested as late as possible, because at this time, the root crop grows intensively and reaches a length of 30-35 cm. The foliage is removed, leaving the stalks of 1-2 cm, it is ensiled for domestic animals and poultry, or it is laid in compost. Root crops are dug, cut off thin roots, freed from the soil by hand, dried and put into boxes with sand for storage. Injured and diseased roots are used for processing. Part of the crop is left before winter and eaten in April - May.
Root crops of the Tatar katran in the first and second years of life are approximately the same in biochemical composition, but in the second year, half of the plants begin to bear fruit, and the yield decreases. And in the sea katran in the second year, the content of vitamin C decreases, but its roots grow up to 35%.
If the sowing is left for the second year, then the care consists in loosening, watering in the first half of the summer, weeding, feeding.
Given the shortage of seeds in the retail network, gardeners will have to take care of them themselves. To do this, at the beginning of October, the most typical, large, undivided root crops with a length of 25 cm are selected, and they are laid for storage. They are planted in early spring according to the 70x50-70 scheme. Or in September, after harvesting, the selected root crops are immediately planted in the soil obliquely, covering the growth point by 3-4 cm. It is advisable to mulch them with peat, sawdust, etc. Testes are harvested when 60-70% of the pods are brown (50-55 days after the end of flowering). With a 2-3-year-old culture, typical plants are selected for seeds with simultaneous harvesting of root crops or selectively.
When harvesting, make sure that the seeds do not crumble. The stalks of the testes are hung on a hanger under a canopy, with cloth spread under them. The scattered and threshed seeds are sifted on sieves (or ground), removing the non-viable seeds of the Tatar katran with a diameter of up to 3 mm, and the sea katran - up to 5 mm.
In their gardens, villagers and gardeners grow local populations of the above species of katran. This plant is only being introduced into cultivation, therefore, we only know the variety of the Tatar Katrana Crimean selection of the Simferopol Vegetable-Potato Station. It was bred by the method of group selection from the local population of the Tatar Katran in Crimea. This variety is propagated by seeds and root cuttings. With the second method, the yield is doubled. The root crop is grayish-white, cylindrical, with little branching, reaching a mass of 500-800 g.
Qatran in cooking
Its roots are used raw and canned, in various sauces, salads and in pickling cucumbers. In spring, young, grown fleshy shoots and leaves are eaten, like asparagus or salad.
Recipes with katran
Beat the yolks, add sour cream to them, mix and combine with grated katran. Stirring continuously, heat the sauce over low heat. When the sauce thickens, remove from heat, add lemon juice, salt and sugar. Serve with boiled or fried meat or fish.
For 0.5 cups of grated katran - 1 cup sour cream, 2 egg yolks, 1 teaspoon of lemon juice, 1 teaspoon of granulated sugar, salt to taste.
Pour vinegar, sour cream over the bread crumbs and beat well. Then add katran, salt and sugar.
For 0.5 cups of white soft bread crumbs - 1 tbsp. a spoonful of vinegar, 0.5 cups of katran, 1 glass of sour cream, 1 teaspoon of granulated sugar, salt to taste.
Combine mayonnaise and sour cream, add katran, vinegar, sugar, stir and put in the freezer for 6 hours, then serve.
Lingonberry with katran
Mix lingonberries with katran and use as a seasoning for poultry and veal.
At 3 st. spoons of pickled lingonberries - 1 incomplete tbsp. spoon of katran.
Katran and apple sauce
Mix the grated apple with grated katran. Add vinegar, vegetable oil, salt and sugar. Drizzle with broth or cream.
For 1 apple - 0.5 cups of katran, a little vinegar and vegetable oil, 1 teaspoon of broth or cream, salt and sugar.
Sprinkle the grated katran with vinegar. Heat the oil, mix with flour, add meat broth and let it boil once. Add sour cream to the prepared katran, season with sugar, vinegar and salt. Then pour in the yolks and stir well. Do not boil under any circumstances! Serve with boiled meat (beef) or fish.
For 100 g of katran - 50 g of butter, 40 g of flour, 250 ml of meat broth, 200 g of sour cream, 2 egg yolks, salt, sugar and vinegar to taste.
Meat with katran
Pour hot water over the meat, salt and pepper, put bay leaves and other spices, cook over low heat until soft. Then add finely chopped greens, onions, diced potatoes and cook until tender. Cut the meat into strips, season with grated katran. Sprinkle the potato broth with fresh parsley and serve separately.
For 500 g of pork - 1 liter of water, 4 black peppercorns, a bunch of parsley, 1 bay litas, 1 onion, 500 g of potatoes, 0.5 cups of katran, salt to taste.
Boil young bleached leaves and stems in salted water, season with oil and sprinkle with breadcrumbs. Use as a side dish.