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Video: Cauliflower Conveyor
How to increase the harvest time of cauliflower
Interest in cauliflower is caused not only by its unusual taste, aroma, special tenderness for any type of preparation, but also by the high healing properties of this culture.
In the heads of cauliflower, more than half of the nitrogenous substances are represented by easily digestible proteins, while there is little fiber in them, but vitamin C, PP, B3 is two to three times more than in white cabbage. They are rich in potassium, iron, phosphorus, cobalt, magnesium and iodine.
Due to its fine cellular structure, cauliflower is better absorbed by the body than other types of cabbage. It is especially valuable as a dietary product for diseases of the liver, stomach, atherosclerosis, diabetes. It is useful for everyone, especially the elderly and children.
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They eat boiled cauliflower, fried in breadcrumbs, stewed, served with sour cream, butter, boiled vegetable soup, baked in the oven in milk, under sour cream.
This is an annual cold-resistant plant, its head is used for food, consisting of numerous tightly closed branched shoots. The harvest of cauliflower heads is formed from the leaves. Therefore, the entire cultivation technology is aimed at the active formation of the leaf mass, and by the beginning of the formation of the head, the plant should have 15-20 large healthy leaves. The share of the crop is only 30% of the plant weight (for white cabbage - 70%)
A great advantage of cauliflower is early maturity - 80-140 days from germination to harvest. This allows you to harvest all summer until late autumn using various growing methods.
The first method is due to varieties of different early maturity (planting seedlings on May 15-20)
a) Early (95-105 days) - Movir-74, Guarantee. Cleaning during July.
b) Medium early (110-130 days) - Patriotic, Robert. Cleaning in August.
c) Late ripening (130-160 days) - Solokrop, White Beauty. Cleaning from late August to mid September. Some of the heads can be cut off and stored in the refrigerator for up to 10 days.
The second method is due to different landing dates.
a) Spring-summer culture - planting with 50-day seedlings of early maturing varieties on May 15. Cleaning in early July.
b) Summer culture - planting with 40-45-day seedlings of early and mid-season varieties on June 5-15. Seedlings can be grown in a film greenhouse by sowing seeds in late April - early May. Cleaning - from late July to mid-August.
c) Summer-autumn culture - planting with 35-day seedlings of early and mid-season varieties. Seedlings are grown outdoors with spunbond sowing from June 25 to July 5. They start harvesting at the end of August and finish cutting the heads in September.
The third method is through a combination of seedling and non-seedling methods.
50-day seedlings of early and mid-season varieties are planted on May 15-20, and at the same time, during these periods, seeds of mid-early varieties are sown in open ground. Harvesting lasts from early July (from seedlings) to late August - mid September (from seeds).
You can also combine all three methods. For example: plant varieties of different early maturity at the same time and immediately sow the seeds of these varieties, or use varieties of different early maturity for different planting dates of seedlings.
An earlier harvest (up to a week) with all methods can be obtained by growing part of the plants under spunbond or temporary film shelters, and several plants can be planted in a greenhouse in early spring (harvest is ready in early June).
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You can extend the fall harvest until late autumn by growing cauliflower. Seeds are sown in open ground in early July under spunbond. By the end of September, plants that have formed a large rosette of 12-15 leaves with a small head up to 5-7 cm are carefully dug out with a lump of earth and placed close to each other in boxes, plastic bags, transferred to a cellar, a warm shed, a veranda, or they are added to on beds in heated greenhouses after tomato and cucumber (30-40 pcs. per m2). Such plants do not need light, the formation of heads will occur due to the outflow of nutrients from the leaves and stump. The optimum temperature for such growing is 4-6 ° C. Plants are occasionally watered and sprayed with water, preventing the leaves from wilting. After 30-40 days, the head size will increase to 15-25 cm.
Of all types of cabbage plants, cauliflower is the most capricious crop. Having a weak root system, it is most demanding on soil fertility, moisture and heat. Therefore, this crop is grown on light, loose sandy loam, medium loamy, peat soils, well filled with organic fertilizers with abundant watering during the entire growing season. Young plants during the seedling period and immediately after planting in open ground must be protected from frost (even -1 ° C is dangerous) and low (up to 4-5 ° C) temperatures, because this will further cause the heads to "crumble".
Overheating at night (above 20 ° C) and overdrying of the soil are also undesirable for seedlings: they contribute to the premature formation of small non-commodity heads immediately after planting seedlings in open ground.
In adult plants, at temperatures below 8 ° C, growth stops or the head is not tied, and at temperatures above 25 ° C, their taste (bitterness, hardness) deteriorates sharply.
Before sowing, the seeds are heated for 20 minutes in hot water at a temperature of 50-52 ° C, or they are kept for 15 minutes in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per 100 ml of water), followed by washing them in running water for half an hour.
Cauliflower reacts very much to the lack of trace elements, especially boron (the head develops poorly, and the seedlings are apical - the growth point fading) and molybdenum (the leaves are deformed and rot, photosynthesis decreases, the growth of the head stops, the stump becomes hollow). Therefore, in addition to two fertilizing of seedlings with nitroammophos (30-40 g per 10 l of water) in the phase of 2-4 leaves, plants are sprayed with a solution of boric acid (2 g per 10 l of water), or they are used for dressing Kemira-Lux and Kemira-universal "containing these important trace elements.
By the time of planting in a permanent place, the seedlings should be without damage to the black leg (dry constriction at the border of the stem and root), have 4-5 true leaves, a height of 12-15 cm, a well-developed root system.
In a permanent place, the plants are planted in the evening in wells spilled with water, 25 cm between the plants. Before sowing or planting seedlings, 5-6 kg of compost, 50 g of nitroammofoska, 2 glasses of ash are introduced per 1 m². Additionally, 0.5 teaspoon of superphosphate is added to each well. Seedlings are carefully removed from the pots, without damaging the clod of earth around the roots, buried in the soil to the first lower leaf, the soil is mulched with humus with a layer of 2-3 cm.
With the seedless method, the seeds are sown in moist soil to a depth of 1 cm, sprinkled with the same soil and mulched with peat, humus (0.5 cm). The crops are covered with spunbond and removed after the formation of 5-6 leaves, or left until harvesting. This will protect plants from damage by cabbage fly, cruciferous flea, moth. Regular watering, loosening with simultaneous high hilling, three times feeding every 2-3 weeks "Kemira-universal" (70 g per 10 liters of water) will protect plants from pests and will have a beneficial effect on the growth of leaves and the formation of dense heads. Effectively during the period of active growth of the leaves of the plant, sprinkle with a solution of boric acid, ammonium molybdate, copper sulfate (respectively, 10 g, 1 g and 8 g per 10 l of water). So that the heads do not crumble, do not turn yellow and are more delicate in taste,during the period of their formation, they must be shaded with a broken inner sheet.
The most troublesome to grow cauliflower during the summer planting period (June 5-15). High temperature, long day, natural lack of moisture in the soil, summer years of cabbage fly - all this contributes to the formation of loose heads and damage to them by pests. Therefore, increased abundant watering with sprinkling will increase humidity and reduce air temperature on hot days.
And vice versa, when planting seedlings for summer-autumn culture (June 25 - July 5), favorable conditions are created for the formation of large heads: the days become shorter, cooler, and it rains more often.
It should be borne in mind that cauliflower seedlings when sown in open ground in May and June may die from the summer summer of the cabbage fly. Therefore, in the phase of 2-3 leaves, they must be treated with Intavir.
Cauliflower is harvested selectively, with a head size of 8 cm or more. Its mass reaches 200-500 g. For better preservation, they are cut with four to six adjoining leaves, which are shortened slightly higher (by 2-3 cm) of the head itself.
After harvesting the cauliflower in early to mid-July (spring planting time), on the remaining stumps with leaves, you can get a re-harvest of heads - from young shoots growing from axillary buds in the lower part of the stump. It is necessary to deeply loosen the row spacing to a depth of 12-14 cm, two additional fertilizing with complex fertilizer (70 g per 10 l of water) and 3-4 watering.
Usually 3-4 or more new shoots are formed on each plant. It is necessary to leave one of them, the most developed, cutting out the rest. In this case, a large head will form in 60-70 days after the head of the first crop is cut.
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