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What A Safe Tomato Needs
What A Safe Tomato Needs

Video: What A Safe Tomato Needs

Video: What A Safe Tomato Needs
Video: Tomato Problems: Fix Issues Affecting Your Tomatoes 2023, October

The experience of growing tomatoes in the Northwest

What soil is needed for tomatoes

growing tomatoes
growing tomatoes

I think many have already encountered the effects of an increased concentration of salts in the soil solution when growing seedlings. Very oversaturated earth mixes are sometimes found on the market, and many think that the fatter the soil, the better. But if the seeds sometimes sprout in such soil, then the plants will then grow a little and stop growing.

I would often pay attention to the acidity of the soil in the greenhouse, and not introduce "extra" nutrients, then you will have fewer problems. Not only plant growth depends on acidity, but also the composition of soil microflora, the presence of certain pathogens. Also pH affects the ability of the roots to absorb nutrients. Calcium, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium are likely to be inaccessible to plants in acidic soils.

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In alkaline soils, it may be difficult to absorb copper, zinc, boron, manganese and iron. Plants will not have problems with the assimilation of boron, copper and zinc in the pH range 5-pH 7. Iron and magnesium at pH less than 5 enter plants in huge quantities, which can lead to undesirable consequences.

For good plant growth and development, the supply of iron and magnesium should occur at a pH of 5-7. When soil acidity is above 7.0, chlorosis is often observed on plants - a sign of iron deficiency. We came to the conclusion that it is better to fertilize tomatoes together with irrigation water, i.e. Do not water with clean water at all, as the Dutch agronomists recommend.

In this case, it is easier to choose the appropriate ratio of nutrients, less fertilizer consumption, better effect. Add soluble NPK mineral salts to the irrigation water. The total salt concentration does not exceed 0.05%, i.e. 5 g per 10 liters of water. After planting, the NPK ratio is 1: 5: 1. After tying 5-6 hands, the NPK ratio is 1: 0.5: 1.7. When the first fruits appear, NPK 1: 0.5: 1.9. The frequency of watering is regulated by soil moisture, i.e. when plants need watering, then we fertilize.

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The solution is made up of potassium nitrate and potassium monophosphate, sometimes we add calcium nitrate, magnesium sulfate, trace elements. From foliar dressings, dressings with boron and iron are recommended after 10-12 days, after planting 3-4 times, preferably in a chylate form, at a concentration of 0.01%. All these subtleties of the Dutch agronomists, of course, make sense, but for our gardener they are not always feasible. But if you add 1/3 teaspoon of good soluble complex fertilizers to 10 liter irrigation water, then this will already be almost a Dutch technology.

The relative humidity in the greenhouse is very important. At a relative humidity below 40%, plants dry out very quickly, and at a humidity above 80%, most important processes slow down in them. In addition, high humidity contributes to the increased development of fungal diseases of plants. At low temperatures, the air may contain some moisture, but the relative humidity will still be high.

The same amount of water at an air temperature of 26 ° C and a relative humidity of 40%, at 18 ° C will correspond to a relative humidity of 65%. Therefore, it is important to select the appropriate varieties of tomatoes that can set fruit in the difficult conditions of our amateur greenhouses.

Growing tomatoes in the open field

On our site, we grow tomatoes in the open field, and do not cover them with foil at all. I will not say that a guaranteed large harvest is always obtained, but tomatoes grown without shelter turn out to be sweeter. We do not use the often recommended standard or super determinant varieties for this purpose. We liked the indeterminate hybrid Tolstoy F1, which gives good results in the greenhouse, when formed in 6-7 brushes.

In the open field, leave 3 brushes, tip at the height of the 5th brush, which, like the 4th, we delete. Save only the leaves. We plant this tomato seedlings after June 15th. We prepare seedlings in a film greenhouse, where greenhouse tomatoes have already been planted. We sow seeds in mid-April, make a dive into pots, everything is as usual. We either occupy a garden bed in the open ground, where tomatoes will grow, with radishes, using an early ripening hybrid Rudy F1, or Rudolph. Or we plant early prepared seedlings of early white cabbage Santorino F1, this cabbage hybrid is specially designed for growing under film and lutrasil, does not shoot under cover.

Combining cabbage with tomato in the garden

Many people welcome the combination of cabbage with tomato - tomatoes are less affected by late blight. We were attracted by the tomato Tolstoy and because of the good tolerance to this disease. In general, late blight of nightshades is a rather harmful disease. What this disease is, everyone who grows tomatoes in the open field knows: when with the onset of the rainy period and in the second half of summer at night there is a lot of dew, leaves, stems, and then the tomato fruits turn black. It is believed that the development of epiphytoties on tomatoes is explained by the introduction of pathogen spores from potato plantings, and there is reason to believe that they winter in the form of oospores (in the soil on plant debris or on seeds).

Ways to combat phyotofluorosis:

growing tomatoes
growing tomatoes

Biological method. Plants are sprayed or shed after planting in the ground with a working solution of pseudobacterin-2.

Chemical method. Plants are treated prophylactically with Quadris SK, during the period of development of the disease, it is recommended to spray plants with fungicides Ridomil Gold, Bravo SK. Gardeners should plant the earliest ripening varieties, form the plants correctly, isolate spatially the planting of potatoes and tomatoes. It is necessary to remove the affected tomato plants in a timely manner, select tolerant hybrids.

Interesting varieties and hybrids of tomatoes

The number of tomato varieties on the amateur market has already exceeded one thousand. Amateur vegetable growers study varietal differences in the process of plant growth and development, different types of reactions to external conditions, adaptation of growing conditions to individual varietal characteristics.

This activity is very exciting. But if you turn to the range of professional greenhouse farms, then there are no more than two dozen varieties that, according to experts, are suitable for the appropriate growing technology, professionals are interested in obtaining the highest possible yield with a minimum of problems.

I understand perfectly well that there cannot be an ideal variety: an amateur has his own evaluation criteria. The amateur does not care about low-volume hydroponics, winter-spring turnover in the greenhouse and tomatoes that meet modern production requirements and market demands, in the main areas of which foreign and domestic seed companies compete.

And yet, among this many professional varieties, very interesting specimens appear for the amateur gardener, especially recently. This is a selection of hybrids with an attractive bright red color, increased keeping quality, original shape and high taste of fruits. The choice of a variety is a rather complicated matter, but a little information for thought should be given.

There are tomatoes for indoor and outdoor (temporary film cover). Not all varieties of tomatoes intended for open ground can be successfully grown in a closed greenhouse. In film greenhouses, tomatoes are prone to overheating, and this leads to an elongation of the pistil in the flower, which makes pollination difficult. Pollen becomes sterile at high temperatures. The result is that many varieties do not set fruit well. The increased resistance of greenhouse tomatoes to a complex of diseases is very desirable.

If we take the criterion for the height of plants, then indeterminate plants are planted in the greenhouse, which do not stop growing (do not top), semi-determinant ones - they stop growing by 6-8 brushes, less often determinant ones stop growing by 4 brushes.

We do not grow superdeterminate tomatoes (2-3 brushes). We have good results for indeterminate hybrids: Shaman F1, Fuyesanta F1, Stresa F1, Tolstoy F1, Marissa F1, Pink Lady F1, Martha F1, Orchid F1, Lemon boy F1 (yellow), Faustin F1. Franco F1, Big Beef F1, Megana F1.

Semi-determinant tomato hybrids: Gondola F1, Ildiko F1, President II F1, Bologna F1, Silhouette F1, Ivet F1, Panther F1, Marman UF variety.

Determinant Tomatoes: Selibrity F1, Tanya F1, Margot F1, Townsville F1, Sultan F1, Torbay F1.

You can use those hybrids and varieties that set fruit well over a wide temperature range. For ordinary temporary shelters, very early maturing varieties have proven themselves well in our farm: Polfast F1, Yukko F1, Mountain Spring F1, GS-12 F1, Dual Earley F1. Of the varieties - Peto 86 - sets fruit very well. Peckmore is a large-fruited, unpretentious variety.

The best tomatoes for canning are: Caspar F1, Ronco F1, Benito F1. At low temperatures, the fruits of Polbig F1 are well set. Lying tomatoes - Margot F1, Tanya F1, Kalisti F1, besides, these hybrids, like Townsville F1, do not reduce the size of the fruit during the entire fruiting (200 g), they lie for several months - Garden F1, Orchid F1.

It is better not to be limited to only one hybrid, it is desirable to have different ripening periods. Each variety, each hybrid is good in its own way, each has its own advantages and disadvantages, the task is to find its own team of genes that will play well in your summer cottage and provide you with ripe fruits from early July to the end of the year.