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Video: The Main Problems With Growing Pepper
← Read the first part of the article. Growing and planting seedlings of peppers
Pepper care during the growing season
Harvest-weighted peppers require an extra garter. Unfortunately, those garter options that are usually used in relation to tomatoes and cucumbers (meaning a garter to high horizontal supports) are completely unacceptable here. Therefore, you have to substitute a corresponding peg for each pepper, and quite massive. Otherwise, the peppers with fruits do not support their own weight and fall on top of each other. As a result, even partial root breaks are possible, which, of course, is completely unacceptable.
Alas, in the conditions of the Urals and others like it, counting on a crop on numerous stepsons is not necessary. Therefore, the lower weak stepsons should be removed, and the sooner the better. Some of the strong upper stepsons need to be left, but their number depends on the circumstances: the more light space and the longer until the end of the season, the more stepsons you can leave. Be extremely careful in the process of tying pepper, take into account the extraordinary fragility of its shoots. One wrong move - and part of a beautiful bush will be in your hands.
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Pruning leaves and parts of peppers
Unfortunately, despite all the precautions, every year part of the shoots of plants, due to the density of planting and the appearance of condensation on the leaves, fall ill with gray rot. Diseased fruits and parts of shoots must be carefully cut to a healthy place and sent to the fire.
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All the pepper hybrids I mentioned above are so-called intensive type hybrids. This means that they require a fractional application of increased doses of fertilizers and at the same time please us with a huge harvest. Fractional fertilization is carried out through a series of continuous fertilizing. The first four weeks after planting, the plants usually have enough fertilizers applied in advance. But then, after a month, you should start regular feeding, and not be lazy. A delay with just one potash top dressing can lead to the fact that some of the flowers turn yellow and fall off. Initially, I feed once every two weeks, and starting from mid-June I start feeding once a week. So, here is an approximate feeding scheme.
When feeding with sodium sulfate, you need to remember that in sunny weather it is required less, and in damp and cloudy weather - more. Therefore, it is better to increase the fertilizer dose in bad weather: instead of 1 tablespoon, put 2 tablespoons on a bucket
The first is to feed it with Azofosky or any other complex fertilizer, simply scattering it in handfuls between the bushes; then you should water the soil with slurry;
- the second is to sprinkle superphosphate and ash;
- the third is to feed with potassium sulfate (pre-dilute 1 tbsp. a spoonful of fertilizer in 1 bucket of water);
- fourth - to carry out top dressing with Magbor fertilizer (pre-dilute 1 tablespoon of fertilizer in 1 bucket of water);
- the fifth - to feed with Azofosky or any other complex fertilizer, simply scattering it in handfuls between the bushes; water the soil with slurry.
Fertilizers potassium sulfate and magbor can be mixed in one bucket of water
Then every week you should alternately feed with ash or potassium sulfate (previously diluting 1 tbsp. A spoonful of fertilizer in 1 bucket of water). And once every three weeks add magbor fertilizer to this mixture (after diluting 1 tbsp. A spoonful of fertilizer in 1 bucket of water). Usually, in our conditions, I do not carry out additional fertilizing with phosphorus. In addition, foliar feeding is very good throughout the growing season. As the best for this purpose, from my point of view (I take into account its price and effectiveness), I consider the drug "New Ideal" (1 cap per 1 liter of water). It is worth noting that you can do without tedious fertilizing if instead of traditional fertilizers you switch to long-acting fertilizers. An example of such fertilizers are APIs produced in Russia.When planting pepper seedlings, it is enough to put one sachet of fertilizer (just take grade 30) under each bush (to a depth of 10 cm), and then instead of dressing you can only water the pepper all season, and the harvest will be excellent. I switched to this type of fertilizer two years ago and I can't get enough of it, because everything has become much easier.
The drug "Fitoferm" is absolutely safe: it decomposes extremely quickly. After two hours, according to the instructions, you can harvest the fruits. (True, I personally harvest the fruits before spraying)
The main problems with growing pepper
There are two important things to keep in mind when growing peppers.
1. Pepper plants are demanding on soil moisture. This culture does not tolerate even its short-term drying out. Therefore, peppers have to be watered 1-2 times a week with very warm water (25 … 30 ° C), spending 1-2 liters of water per plant. At the same time, waterlogging of both soil and air is unacceptable. At high air humidity, pollen becomes unviable. As a result, neither pollination nor fruit setting occurs. Therefore, on the one hand, it is advisable to water in the morning, i.e. before blooming flowers. On the other hand, it is extremely important to ensure the maximum possible ventilation of the greenhouse. Condensation on plants is unacceptable! This must be monitored very carefully.
2. Very often, at the time of fruiting, pepper becomes a victim of aphids. You understand perfectly well that it is no longer possible to spray with any chemical preparations, for example, the well-known Intavir. The drug Fitoverm can come to the rescue. True, it may take up to three sprays to finally get rid of this malicious pest.
Why isn't the fruit set?
There are many reasons why pollen turns out to be sterile and as a result pollination of flowers does not occur. I will name the main ones:
- sudden changes in temperature;
- rainy and cold weather;
- lack of light;
- lack of potassium or boron;
- the presence of condensation, leading to an increase in pollen moisture;
- temperature above 30 ° C, leading to complete sterility of the pollen.
Naturally, a legitimate question arises, what to do? Pepper hybrids growing on a large layer of biofuel, the soil under which is covered with a large layer of mulch in the form of leaf litter, as well as those treated with Immunocytophyte and growth stimulants, cease to react sharply to the first two factors. Although, of course, there can be no question of not closing the greenhouse with pepper on one of the nights. It is better to play it safe in this matter. The night should always be warm. The presence of the third factor can completely rob you of your crop. Moral one: choose the most illuminated area on the site for a greenhouse with pepper. As for the fourth factor, everything is in your hands. You will regularly carry out feeding or switch to APIONs, and you will not have the corresponding problems. The negative influence of the fifth factor can only be partially reduced,intensively airing the greenhouse daily. Naturally, during rain, you should have only one side open, and in cold windy weather, the film strip should be half open.
The last factor, alas, we cannot change.
Preparations "Gibbersib" and "Ovyaz" will provide almost complete pollination in any weather conditions
However, there is another way to dramatically increase the degree of fruit set: regularly spray the plants with appropriate preparations. Starting from the moment of flowering of pepper, it is necessary to spray once every two weeks with a stimulant of fruit formation (preparations "Gibbersib", "Ovary" or "Bud").
Let's talk about the mood of plants
Pepper, as everyone knows, is clearly a thermophilic culture. Being in our, frankly, unfavorable conditions, pepper plants experience constant stress, which reduces their vitality, making them more susceptible to all kinds of diseases. In other words, the "mood" of plants is deteriorating, despite all our efforts with you (remember yourself, when there is slush on the street, and the nasty flu is still attached to you, etc.). The only way is to relieve stress, which is carried out by spraying the plants with special stimulants. There are a lot of stimulants today. They have a different spectrum of action, but, one way or another, lead to an increase in the mood of plants, and as a result to their faster development and intense fruiting.
What drugs to choose to stimulate the development of peppers?
1. In order to stimulate the development of plants about 2-3 times per season, it is worth spraying them with growth stimulants: "Epin" or "Silk".
2. In addition, to shorten the ripening period, increase the resistance of plants to diseases and increase the energy of growth, it is worth using humates both in root and foliar dressings, it can be in its pure form, it can be included in the used fertilizers.
Does it make a difference when and how to harvest the peppers?
Obviously, you will not process all the pepper collected at one time at a time, and during storage it loves to rot. To reduce the incidence of fruit, it must be harvested completely dry. Therefore, choose a suitable day, ventilate the greenhouse well and only then start collecting. It should be stored in a cool dry place in low boxes with a layer of no more than two peppers in height. It is advisable not to keep it there for too long, but to process it for three weeks. The volume of pepper that you prefer to freeze for winter stuffing is better, of course, not to store at all, but to immediately process and send to the freezer.
The fruits should be removed in a timely manner, avoiding their ripening, since in this case new ovaries are not formed. Waiting for the biological ripeness of the pepper, you are depriving yourself of a substantial part of the harvest. Large fruits are harvested, leaving small and medium ones. It also makes no sense to collect average fruits, because they are bitter, and in general their taste leaves much to be desired.
As for the question: how to harvest, then we will have to dwell on it separately. Pepper shoots are extremely fragile. Therefore, during the collection process, you should not break off each fruit, but be sure to cut it off with scissors. Otherwise, you risk breaking all your plants. Moreover, their decay is possible in the place of faults.
What do peppers like and dislike?
- grows only on neutral soils (acidic soils should, of course, be limed);
- requires a deeper layer of insulated soil than tomato and cucumber (therefore, a high greenhouse foundation is required);
- requires breathable soil (mulching helps);
- prefers a temperature of 28 … 30 ° С during the day and 18 … 20 ° С at night (a high layer of biofuel, mulching, covering material and a small greenhouse volume help out);
- requires a very neat garter due to the fragility of the stems (setting pegs to each plant).
Pepper doesn't like:
- does not tolerate even a short-term lack of moisture in the soil (ovaries may fall off);
- does not like deepening when planting seedlings (rotting in the area of the root collar is possible);
- does not tolerate strong and cold wind (it grows worse, it can get sick);
- extremely sensitive to a lack of light (in this case, you are guaranteed that the ovaries will fall off);
- does not tolerate condensation on leaves and stems (gray rot and other "delights" appear);
- does not tolerate chlorine (therefore, only ash and potassium sulfate are used as potassium fertilizers).
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