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Video: Table Beet: Conditions For Growth And Development, Beet Varieties
2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 05:47
Beets are a vegetable that will feed and heal
Beetroot is an ancient vegetable crop cultivated in all countries of the world. It was known as a vegetable to the ancient Arabs and Persians. Its leaves and roots were first used for the preparation of medicines, and then they began to be consumed as food.
In Russia, beetroot spread from the Greeks. During the period from the 11th to the 17th centuries, it became a widely known vegetable, which is mentioned in many chronicles, herbalists, etc.
Beetroot is a high-carbohydrate plant. 14% of carbohydrates are isolated from its root crops, among which sucrose dominates (6%). Beets are rich in vitamins - B1, B2, B5, C, pantothenic and folic acids, carotenoids, anthocyanins, organic acids (oxalic, malic), proteins and amino acids.
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It is rich in mineral salts of phosphorus, potassium, manganese, iron, magnesium. These salts are necessary for a person to build bones, tissues, proteins, enzymes, as well as to neutralize harmful organic acids. There is cobalt in it, which is involved in the formation of vitamin B12, which supports hematopoiesis. Due to the presence of betaine and betanin, beets help to strengthen blood capillary vessels, lower blood pressure and the amount of cholesterol in the blood, improve fat metabolism, liver function, etc. Betanine delays the development of malignant tumors.
In terms of iodine content, beets are among the vegetables most provided with this element. Therefore, it is very useful for the elderly, as well as those suffering from atherosclerosis. There are more pectin substances in it than in carrots and apples, and they suppress the activity of putrefactive intestinal bacteria, prevent the occurrence of certain diseases.
Beetroot has long been used in folk medicine. So, with anemia, they drink a mixture of beet, carrot and radish juices (1: 1: 1) daily, 1-2 tablespoons for several months. Mixed in half with honey, raw beet juice is drunk 1/2 cup 3-4 times a day for hypertension and increased nervousness. The juice of freshly grated root vegetables is taken to treat lung diseases (inflammation, pleurisy). Freshly grated beets are used for stomach ulcers. Squeezed juice from freshly boiled beets is used for a cold. Sauerkraut has long been considered a good antiscorbutic agent.
However, people with urolithiasis should limit their consumption of beets due to their oxalic acid content.
The advantage of beets is its cold resistance, early maturity, undemandingness to a certain type of soil, good keeping quality during storage, the ability to grow well in a forcing culture. All this allows the use of beets throughout the year. However, in order to get good harvests, it is necessary to create such agricultural machinery that would take into account its requirements for the main factors of growth and development.
Conditions for the growth and development of beetroot
Beets are a more demanding crop than other root crops. And this is despite the fact that it has all the qualities of cold-resistant crops - to sprout and continue growing at low spring temperatures, as well as to withstand autumn frosts. Even at a temperature of 6-8 ° C, growth and development are observed, albeit slow. Leaves of mature plants withstand short-term morning frosts down to -5-6 ° C.
The most favorable temperature for its growth is 18-28 ° C. Prolonged cooling at the beginning of the growing season can lead to early flowering ("flowering"). In such plants, underdeveloped, fibrous and unsuitable for food root crops are formed.
For the accumulation of the harvest of beet root crops, the minimum amount of active (above 10 ° C) temperatures is 1400-1500 ° C with a growing season of 90-120 days. That is why, in cold years, mid- and late-ripening varieties of table beet, as a rule, yield less to root crops of early-ripening varieties.
Beetroot is both moisture-loving and drought-resistant plant. It tolerates a lack of moisture for quite a long time, but it forms a good yield with sufficient moisture. Beets make increased demands on soil moisture during seed germination and seedling rooting, and during the development of the largest leaf surface. Favorable soil moisture for beets is 60-70% of its full moisture capacity. At the same time, it does not tolerate excess moisture in the soil.
Beetroot is quite demanding on light. With a lack of sunlight, the yield decreases and the quality of root crops deteriorates. Shading, especially at the beginning of growth (in the phase of cotyledons), beets do not tolerate. At this time, it is especially dangerous to overgrow the sowing with weeds, which is why the beet plants are strongly stretched and stunted. In this regard, it is important not to be late with the thinning of seedlings and weeding.
Of the root crops, beets are the most demanding on soil fertility. She prefers light and medium loamy, as well as sandy loamy soils, rich in humus, loose with a deep arable layer.
Beets do not tolerate acidic soils. The optimum acidity for it is close to neutral (ph 6-7). On peat bogs, the cultivation of table beets is possible only if sufficient lime is applied.
Beetroot is an early ripening, highly productive plant, and for the formation of a crop, it needs abundant nutrition at all stages of growth and development.
The humus content is required at least 3-4%. To obtain a good yield of high-quality root crops in the soil, you need to have an active substance per 10 m²: nitrogen - 135-165 g, phosphorus - 65-120 and potassium - 240-315 g. For normal growth of beets, trace elements are also needed - iron, sulfur, boron, manganese, copper, zinc, etc.
Lack of nitrogen greatly reduces the yield, while the plants acquire a pale green (yellowish) color and stop growing. With an excess of nitrogen, especially in wet weather, powerful leaves develop to the detriment of the yield of root crops, and the sugar content in them decreases.
With a lack of phosphorus, plant growth is suspended and the formation of root crops is delayed. The important action of phosphorus is manifested in balancing excess nitrogen, which contributes to the preservation of the quality of root crops.
Potassium increases cold and drought resistance and plays an active role in the development of root crops. A slight excess of potassium in the soil does not cause an adverse effect on plants, a deficiency accelerates the death of leaves and reduces plant productivity. A sign of a lack of potassium in the soil is the dullness of the leaves, as well as their large pigmentation.
Calcium improves the absorption of potassium and, which is very important, neutralizes the increased acidity of the soil. With a lack of calcium, the leaves contain less chlorophyll (pale green color), and the sugar content in the roots decreases.
Microelements play an important role in the life of beet plants. Magnesium takes part in the formation of chlorophyll and sugar. Iron is an essential component in oxidation and reduction processes, in the formation of chlorophyll. Sulfur is a component of amino acids and protein. Boron activates carbohydrate metabolism, increases the yield and sugar content of root crops. Manganese affects the outflow of carbohydrates into root crops, promotes the assimilation of a number of trace elements. Copper is involved in metabolism, respiration and photosynthesis, along with zinc, boron and manganese, it protects the plant from diseases. Molybdenum accelerates growth and generative development, while its deficiency inhibits the reduction of nitrates.
Beet is one of the most salt-resistant cultivated plants and takes the first place among all types of root crops.
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The quality of the product, the taste properties of root crops and keeping quality during long-term storage largely depend on the choice of the variety. For the conditions of the Leningrad region, characterized by a relatively short growing season, the most suitable are early maturing varieties that are not prone to flowering, which are included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements and are recommended for cultivation in the Leningrad Region.
Bordeaux 237 was zoned for the Leningrad region in 1943. The growing season from mass shoots to selective harvesting of root crops with tops is 61-65 days, to complete harvesting - 100-110 days. The leaf blades are rounded, dark green, pigmented by anthocyanin by autumn. The variety is high-yielding, low-flowered. Relatively resistant to rootworm, but prone to damage by peronosporosis and cercosporosis. Responsive to a high agricultural background. Keeping quality of root crops during long-term storage (October-May) is 80-97%.
Cold resistant 19. By morphological characteristics, this variety is close to the Bordeaux 237 variety. The growing season from mass seedlings to selective harvesting of root crops with tops is 49-52 days, to complete harvesting - 68-97 days. Cold-resistant, tolerates the return of early spring frosts. Resistant to flowers, high-yielding. Keeping quality during winter storage is 84-96%.
One-sprout. In terms of morphological characteristics, the variety is close to the Bordeaux 237 variety, characterized by a rather powerful rosette of leaves. The growing season from mass shoots to selective harvesting of root crops with tops is 63-76 days, to complete harvesting - 100-125 days. One-two-seeded fruitlets in the seed material are 84-85%. Quite productive. Keeping quality of root crops during winter storage is 53-97%.
In recent years, mid-season varieties have been recommended, which combine yield, quality, disease resistance and good keeping quality. These are Bravo, Valenta and a hybrid from the Netherlands F1 Pablo.
How to get a harvest of table beets in the Northwest
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