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Spring Garlic: Varieties, Cultivation, Features Of Agricultural Technology
Spring Garlic: Varieties, Cultivation, Features Of Agricultural Technology

Video: Spring Garlic: Varieties, Cultivation, Features Of Agricultural Technology

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An ode to garlic. Part two

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Garlic varieties

Garlic
Garlic

In 2003, there are 25 varieties of winter garlic in the State Register of Breeding Achievements Permitted for Use. However, there is no planting material for most varieties. Originators and patent holders, as a rule, have only a meager amount of seed material. The VIR collection, concentrated mainly at the Maikop Experimental Station, is infected with nematodes.

In reality, the market has impersonal material, local populations and food garlic from China and other countries. From varietal material, in very limited quantities, we supply the Skif and Osenny varieties of the West Siberian Vegetable Experimental Station of the All-Russian Research Institute of Vegetable Growing. Firm "SeDeK" distributes the variety Sirius and others, firm "Semko" - the variety Veliky Novgorod, which are absent in the "Register …".

The situation with spring garlic is worse. The market has a variety of local populations' material. Of these, one of the Tver populations is distinguished by good yield and keeping quality. Of the varieties that are not yet in the "Register …", the Semko firm offers the Novgorodsky variety.

For 2003, five varieties have been added to the "Register …" Of these, only the planting material of the Abrek variety will be offered by us in the spring of 2004.

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Spring garlic varieties

Aleisky - launched at the West Siberian Experimental Station of the VNIIO. Mid-ripening, spring, non-shooting, vegetation period from full germination to technical ripeness 109-125 days. The leaf is green, with a medium waxy bloom, length 33 cm, width 1.4 cm.The bulb is round-flat with a run up to the top, shape index 0.8, dense, pungent taste, weighing 17g, the color of dry scales is white, the number of teeth is 15- 18. Productivity 0.41 = 0.8 kg / m². Bulbs have good keeping quality during winter storage - until May (88%). Included in the State Register for the West Siberian Region.

Gulliver - obtained at the Penza experimental point of VNIISSOK. Medium-late, universal use. The leaf is dark green with a strong waxy bloom, length 55 cm, width 4.2 cm.The bulb is round-flat, shape index 0.85, dense, weight 90-120 g, the color of dry scales is off-white, cloves 3-5, the pulp is white. Marketable yield 0.98 kg / m². The bulbs are stored for 8 months.

Included in the State Register for horticultural, home gardens and farms.

Yelenovsky - created by the Krasnodar Research Institute of Vegetable and Potato Farming. Mid-season, spring, non-shooting. The leaf is green, with a waxy bloom of medium intensity, length 35.1 cm, width 1.3 cm.The bulb is round and flat-round, dense, weighing 21-23 g, complex structure, semi-sharp taste, dry white scales, average number of teeth 16, pulp creamy pink cloves. Marketable yield 0.26-0.37 kg / m².

Included in the State Register for the North Caucasus region.

Sochi 56 - bred at the Krasnodar Vegetable and Potato Experimental Station. Mid-season, spring, non-shooting. The bulb is round and flat-round, shape index 0.7-0.9, weight 25-50 g, common scales are dry white or light purple, their number is 5-6, the number of cloves is 15-30, the scales of a clove are light, pink-brown or pink-purple. Keeping quality is good.

Included in the State Register for the North Caucasus region.

Abrek - created at the All-Russian Research Institute of Selection and Seed Production of Vegetable Crops. Since 2003 it has been included in the State Register for horticultural, household and small farms.

Mid-season, from germination to harvesting 116 days, spring, non-shooting. The leaf is green, with an average waxy bloom, length 40-58 cm, width 1.3-1.7 cm.The bulb is round-flat, shape index 0.8, dense, average weight 26 g. Dry scales 5-6, their color white, cloves 12-21, average weight of a clove 1.7 g, white pulp, spicy taste. Marketable yield 0.68-0.9 kg / m², keeping quality of bulbs is high (storage capacity for 8 months is 81%).

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Spring garlic cultivation technology

The root system of spring garlic is poorly developed and does not penetrate deeply into the soil. Therefore, when growing garlic, you should use light, high-fertility soil with a neutral soil solution, with constant optimal moisture in the zone of occurrence of the root system.

Garlic plants can react quite dramatically to changing conditions and growing regions. At the same time, morphological traits and biological properties change greatly, which in turn affects the level and quality of the crop. In most varieties, the reaction to changes in growing conditions is pronounced. That is why it is of great importance to use only well-tested, zoned varieties in a given zone, as well as to comply with optimal growing conditions (planting time, lack of shading, soil moisture, weed control).

Spring garlic makes even higher demands on soil fertility than winter garlic, and therefore the most desirable predecessors for it are those crops for which large doses of organic and mineral fertilizers were applied. It is very picky about the acidity of the soil and needs to be placed on light loamy and sandy loam soils with the reaction of the soil solution closer to neutral.

The relief of the area under the garlic should be even, without "saucers", contributing to the accumulation of water, on which the plant will get wet. Good predecessors for him are legumes and pumpkin crops. Potatoes, as a precursor for garlic, should be excluded, as they contribute to the defeat of fusarium and nematode. It is also impossible to place garlic on other onion crops and garlic earlier than 4-5 years, since these crops have many common pests and diseases.

Features of agricultural technology of spring garlic

Garlic
Garlic

The preparation of the plot for spring garlic begins in the fall, adding 4-6 kg / m² of humus or well-rotted compost for plowing or digging, as well as mineral fertilizers; superphosphate - 20 g / m², potassium salt - 15 g / m². In conditions of sufficient moisture and dense soil, it is best to cultivate garlic on ridges or ridges, for which it is better to cook them in the fall, and to carry out pre-planting loosening in the spring.

The storage temperature has a great influence on the growth, development of plants and ripening of spring garlic bulbs. Optimal mode: storage in the initial period at a temperature of 18-20 ° C, and 30-45 days before planting - storage at a temperature of 2-5 ° C.

Before planting, the chives must be calibrated in size, and they must be planted separately by size group. This will allow in the future to get evenly developing and maturing plants. Spring garlic cloves are planted in a two-line scheme with a distance of 50 cm between lines and 20 cm between cloves, as well as in a multi-line scheme with a distance between lines 15-25 cm, and between cloves in a row 5-6 cm. Planting depth of a clove from the soil surface to its upper part is 2-3 cm. Planting rate is 40-50 cloves per m².

Spring garlic is more demanding for soil moisture than winter garlic. Even a short-term drying out of the soil at the beginning of growth leads to the formation of single-toothed bulbs and, as a result, to a low yield. When seedlings appear, plantings are fed with ammonium nitrate at the rate of 15-20 g / m², combined with watering. Further care of spring garlic plants consists in protecting them from weeds by repeated shallow loosening and weeding. During the beginning of the formation of bulbs (4-5 leaves), plants are fed with superphosphate (15-20 g / m²) and potassium salt (10 g / m²).

A sign of the readiness of spring garlic for harvesting is the beginning of leaf lodging. Ripe spring garlic is poured in with a shovel or shovel, picked out of the soil, gently shaken off, avoiding injury to the bulbs, and left in the area to dry. When the weather is humid, drying is carried out under a canopy. After drying, the roots and leaves of the bulbs are cut off, leaving a "neck" 4-5 cm long over the shoulders. Leaves can not be cut off, but twine into "braids" and hang in this form after drying for storage. The bulbs cut from the leaves and roots are placed in slatted boxes and placed in rooms with good ventilation.

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