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Video: General Rules For Watering Plants
How to water properly
Correct and timely watering and feeding ensure the friendly flowering of flowers in the garden, prevent the appearance of diseases and pests in the flower beds.
All plants retain their vital activity only with a sufficient content of water and nutrients in their cells. Therefore, by applying fertilizers and watering, you can effectively manage the growth and development of plants.
The water in the cells and tissues of a plant has a certain structure. Drying the leaves changes the state of the water in them and increases its evaporation. The main water supply of a living cell is concentrated in the cell sap. When there is a deficiency of moisture in the soil, a temporary wilting of plants occurs, and its losses from the cell sap increase. The water retained by the colloids of the cell is released with difficulty, since its loss often causes irreversible changes in the cell, leading to its death.
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During a hot summer day, the plant evaporates so much water that it can lose almost all of its reserves in just 1 hour. At the same time, the cells first lose their turgor, then pass into a state of plasmolysis, the protoplasm contracts, an empty space is formed between it and the cell membrane, which leads to a decrease in the intensity of photosynthesis and growth, the coordinated work of many enzymes stops, and cell death occurs. Therefore, plants need a constant supply of moisture and nutrients, which are provided by their roots from the soil.
For evaporation over the summer, 300-500 kg of water is spent for each kilogram of dry matter of the crop (this is the transpiration coefficient). The main mass of water evaporated by the plant evaporates through the stomata. Therefore, when the leaves overheat in the hot hours of the day, in order to reduce moisture loss, the plants close the stomata. Then the evaporation of water stops, but the assimilation of СО 2 by the leaves also stops. Therefore, the plant saves itself from thirst only at the cost of hunger. However, a hungry plant cannot give a good harvest. Therefore, fertilizers and water are the main companions for increasing yields.
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For many years, it was believed that the main task of the root system of plants is to absorb water and nutrients from the soil, while leaves account for the evaporation of water, the absorption of carbon dioxide from the air and the synthesis of organic compounds using the energy of the sun. It has now been proven that through the leaves, as well as through the roots, the plant, along with the dew, absorbs dissolved compounds, these are ammonium, nitrate compounds, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements. Thus, foliar dressing is a source of nutrients, the fastest and most effective way of introducing them into weakened plants, since they provide them in critical periods with the necessary nutrients that are lacking in the soil.
If little fertilization is applied, then you need to water more, the soil in this case will be more moist, and the roots will begin to grow better and extract nutrients from the soil. On the other hand, fertilizers, increasing the water content of the cell colloids, increase the growth of roots and the depth of their penetration, and thereby improve the supply of water and nutrients to the plant. If fertilizers are applied, then the leaf blade grows better, the vegetative mass develops better, which, sheltering the soil from the scorching rays of the sun and strong winds, better retains soil moisture.
Fertilizers, in addition, by improving the water content of the protoplasm of cells, reduce the loss of water from the soil, and reduce its loss through the leaves.
The total absorbing surface of the root system of one plant (including roots and root hairs) can be tens of square meters. To absorb fertilizers, 2% of the total amount of absorbed moisture is sufficient, and 98% of it is spent on evaporation.
Water consumption per unit of dry matter of the crop is much higher on unfertilized soil than on soil that has received the necessary fertilizers. During the day, water evaporation by young plants changes four times, despite the fact that their absorption of nutrients from the soil remains the same.
To reduce the evaporation of moisture from the soil surface, it is necessary to harrow - the closure of moisture, in which the capillary rise of water in the soil is disturbed, and its losses for evaporation are reduced. Therefore, after each watering or rain, it is advisable to lightly loosen the soil - harrowing.
The rates and timing of watering plants, doses and time of fertilization are of decisive importance in the struggle for the size of the yield and high quality of vegetable, flower and fruit and berry products.
Vegetable crops during the growth period, and especially during the formation of fruits, need an optimal amount of moisture and nutrients in the soil. Signs of water starvation and violations of the norms and timing of watering are as follows: seedlings, if they lack moisture, age prematurely, the leaves turn pale and coarse. After transplanting into the ground, such seedlings do not take root well, the plants lag behind in growth and may not yield a crop. Vegetable plants that have been watered little, shed flowers and ovaries prematurely, sharply reduce the yield, and worsen the quality of marketable products.
If the plants are watered too often and little by little, the topsoil becomes more compacted and cracked, root hairs are damaged, and large roots break off. Excess moisture also leads to the death of root hairs, as water displaces oxygen, plants breathe poorly and become less resistant to disease. Watering crops with cold water contributes to a greater spread of fungal diseases, and as a result, the yield is sharply reduced.
During the period of fruit formation, most vegetable crops have an increased need for soil moisture. Interruptions in watering dramatically reduce the yield. Without a sufficient amount of moisture, the growth of fruits, heads of cabbage and root crops is delayed, and in hot and dry weather the fruits become corky. During sprinkling, many plants are strongly affected by fungal diseases, so they should be watered at the root.
Zucchini and squash with a lack of moisture in the soil become less sugary.
In cabbage, with a lack of water, the leaves become covered with a bluish bloom and acquire a pink tint, their edges are slightly bent. In early cabbage, growth retardation is observed, a small head is formed, and in cauliflower, a non-standard head is tied, which quickly turns yellow and crumbles. Excess moisture in the soil stops the growth of cabbage, which leads to the formation of small heads of cabbage and heads.
In potatoes, thanks to regular watering, cracks on the tubers, which form in rainy weather after a long drought, can be avoided. If the weather was hot and dry during the formation of tubers, abundant watering can lead to the fact that a few days after harvesting the tubers will begin to germinate. Therefore, watering should be stopped 3-4 weeks before harvesting. Watercress with insufficient watering quickly shoots, the leaves acquire a bitter taste.
Onions with insufficient watering, the leaves acquire a bluish-white tint, the tips of the feathers bend down and turn yellow. Excessive watering at the end of the growing season delays the ripening of the bulbs. For better ripening, they are exposed, and watering is stopped in July. In carrots, with a lack of moisture, the leaves darken and slightly curl. With excessive and irregular watering, the core thickens, the root crop cracks. After a long break, watering is resumed in small doses - 30-40% of the optimal rate.
Cucumbers, with improper watering, slightly curl the leaves, then they darken. Stopping watering at the beginning of bud emergence accelerates the formation of female flowers. With a lack of moisture, cucumbers become bitter. Do not water them with a strong stream from a hose, as the soil is eroded, the roots are exposed and damaged.
With a lack of moisture, parsnips form flowering shoots, significantly reducing the yield. Pepper, with insufficient watering, gets sick with apical rot, excess water leads to damage to fungal diseases.
Radish with a drop in soil moisture significantly reduces the yield, this leads to coarseness and emptiness of root crops, the accumulation of bitterness in them. With insufficient watering, the number of shooted plants increases. In turnips, with a lack of moisture, the roots become coarse and become less edible.
The lack of watering in beets retards the growth of leaves, which become smaller and acquire a brown-purple hue. Waterlogging of the soil at the beginning of the growing season of celery leads to the formation of flowering shoots, a decrease in leaf mass and a deterioration in the quality of root crops.
Planting tomatoes in cold soil, watering with cold water and a lack of moisture cause the flowers and ovaries to fall off, this leads to curling of the leaves. With improper watering, the leaves become dark green in color, and the stripes on them acquire an almost vertical position. At high humidity in the greenhouse, the plants stretch out, the anthers of the flowers do not crack, the flowers remain unfertilized, crumble, and the resistance of plants to diseases decreases.
Lack of moisture leads to damage to their apical rot. If watering is uneven and there is not enough moisture in the soil, the fruits stop growing. But if during this period you begin to water them abundantly, the shell does not withstand the pressure of water and cracks.
Pumpkin with excess moisture in the soil loses its sugar content.
Sorrel leaves quickly coarse with insufficient watering.
In berry crops, irrigation guarantees a positive result only if it is used correctly. Failure to meet the deadlines and an overestimated irrigation rate weaken the vital activity of the root system, which affects the loss of product quality, and reduces the frost resistance of plants.
Abundant watering during the ripening period of strawberries causes rapid growth of leaves and whips with rosettes (whiskers), which reduces the yield, since the berries fall ill with gray rot. If there is not enough moisture in the soil during flowering, the berries are poorly tied and crushed, and the setting of flower buds decreases. But even with excessive soil moisture, the formation of flower buds is weakened, and the winter hardiness of plants is also significantly reduced.
Gooseberry bushes react negatively to temporary strong waterlogging of the soil, the taproot dies off quickly, and the adventitious roots develop slowly, which affects the reduction of flowering and fruit formation. A temporary lack of moisture does not affect the development of plants, so it is better to stir the bushes in drier places.
In raspberries, with improper watering, shedding of ovaries, wrinkling of berries and dwarf shoots are observed. The moisture in the root layer of the raspberry soil must be sufficient. In spring, waterlogging of the soil leads to poor root development, cracking of the bark, and after harvesting, it stimulates the growth of shoots and inhibits their ripening, which increases the possibility of frost damage. But the lack of moisture in the soil during the formation of berries dramatically reduces the yield.
Sea buckthorn, with insufficient watering in the summer (June-July), prematurely stops growing, the shoots turn yellow and leaves and fruits crumble.
Lack of moisture retards the growth of currant bushes and the formation of berries, the fruits are formed small and crumble. Where groundwater stagnates, currants grow poorly, skeletal branches become covered with lichens, age prematurely and stop growing.
When caring for fruit crops in the first half of summer, it is especially important to monitor soil moisture. On wetlands with a close location of groundwater and after long rains, excess moisture is retained in the soil. This is very harmful to the root system and can cause its death.
Therefore, in low places, excess water must be removed to the drainage network, and also abandon agricultural practices that save moisture in the soil.
Gardens located on slopes, on light sandy soils and areas where pines, spruces and birches grow next to fruit trees, usually suffer from lack of water. The increased dryness of the soil retards the development of the root system, the seedlings do not take root well and begin to bear fruit 2-3 years later.
At the beginning of the growing season, when leaves, shoots and roots grow vigorously, fruit crops require the greatest amount of water. Its deficiency in spring and early summer causes excessive fruit fall. Violation of the norms and timing of watering leads to a slowdown in the growth of shoots, the fall of flowers, crushing and shrinking of fruits, increased freezing of trees in severe winters, and affects the frequency of fruiting. Untimely watering, improper irrigation rates, especially overestimated ones, lead to irrational use of water, excessive waterlogging, and sometimes salinization of lands.
Plums and cherries are planted on elevated terrain so that precipitation and groundwater do not accumulate at the planting sites. This makes it difficult for crops to prepare for winter, their tissues will not ripen well, and their resistance to adverse conditions decreases. After harsh winters, improperly planted trees usually freeze out. With excessive watering and poor drainage, their root system weakens, loses the ability to provide the aboveground part with nutrients, which causes dry tops, growth slows down or stops, leaves and branches of the middle and lower tiers begin to dry out.
When growing apple and pear, if there is little rainfall in the second half of summer, and irrigation is not carried out or their rates are underestimated, then the growth of fruits of autumn-winter varieties slows down, they remain small, lose their quality, and up to 25% of the crop falls off before harvesting. The lack of moisture slows down the formation of generative buds, and, consequently, the process of laying the next year's harvest, and the winter hardiness of trees decreases.
Late watering causes delayed growth of annual shoots, which do not have time to ripen by winter, and the trees freeze out. Podwinter watering of fruit-bearing trees, especially after a bountiful harvest, protects them from freezing, especially if there was little rainfall in the fall. Excessive watering and enthusiasm for irrigation create favorable conditions for the development of dangerous diseases (powdery mildew, scab, various spots, fruit rot, etc.) and an increase in the number of moths, leaf rollers and various leaf-eating insects.
For flower crops, excess moisture is just as harmful as lack of moisture. In drought, flowers become shallow and bloom weakly, oppressed and perish. Some plants do not tolerate watering from above - some lie down, others lose their decorative effect. Asters, lilies, when the soil is saturated with moisture, fall ill with gray rot. Carnation in drought branches little, and flowers become smaller. In case of excessive moisture, the roots rot.
Frequent surface watering of gladioli plantings contributes to the development of diseases, most often rusty spots are formed on the leaves along the veins. From the drying out of the soil, the stems are bent. The delphinium lies down from irrigation from above. Lupine flowers lose their decorative effect when irrigated. In peonies, frequent watering in damp wetlands causes root rot. When planting them in pits, it is necessary to make drainage from pebbles, gravel, broken bricks.
Roses with a lack of moisture grow slowly, the flowers become smaller and wither quickly. Too frequent watering increases air humidity, which contributes to the spread of fungal diseases. Excessive moisture in the soil and air affects roses worse than some dryness. Tulips should not be watered over the leaves, as the water stagnates in them and contributes to the spread of gray rot. In violets, orchids, sweet peas, when sprinkled on top, spots appear on the delicately colored petals of flowers, they curl from this.
Phlox should not be watered from above, as the flowers lose their decorative effect. With a lack of moisture, plant growth weakens, the leaves turn pale, turn yellow and fall off, the flowers become small and not bright, the brushes become smaller.
How to water properly:
Part 1. General rules for watering plants
Part 2. How to properly water vegetable and green crops
Part 3. How to properly water berry and fruit crops
Part 4. How to properly water flower crops
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