Table of contents:
- Varieties of white cabbage, red cabbage, cauliflower, savoy cabbage, ornamental cabbage and broccoli
- White cabbage
- Red cabbage
- Savoy cabbage
- Ornamental cabbage
Video: Recommended Varieties Of Different Types Of Cabbage
Varieties of white cabbage, red cabbage, cauliflower, savoy cabbage, ornamental cabbage and broccoli
Over a thousand species of vegetable plants are found on the globe. In Russia, about 80 species are used for food. The palm tree in the vegetable community rightfully belongs to the cruciferous. And the first line of the tournament table, in sports terms, is occupied by cabbage.
In the conditions of the Northwest, the following types of cabbage are most widespread: white cabbage, red cabbage, cauliflower and kohlrabi. Less common are broccoli, Savoy, Peking and Brussels. Collard greens stand out because they are most often used for decorative purposes rather than food. Nothing can compare with it in terms of the variety of shape and color of the head, the texture of the leaves and the timing of ripening. In combination with other cultures, it will give any garden the unique look of a fancy flower garden.
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I would like to remind our readers that cabbage came to us from the shores of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean and was originally a small plant with dense leaves arranged in a rosette shape, and is not at all like the modern one. And only thanks to the persistence of the first farmers and nameless breeders, several centuries later, this southern plant adapted to the harsh climate.
In the XI century, cabbage appeared in Kievan Rus, and then in more northern regions. It is an irreplaceable food product and contains salts of phosphorus, calcium, manganese, magnesium, iron; enzymes, carotene, vitamins: C, B1, B2, B6, P, K, PP, which makes it a medicinal and dietary vegetable. Depending on the length of the growth period and the economic purpose, the varieties are divided into early, medium and late, which allows you to eat it all year round and at the same time create a garden bed that delights you with its appearance from April to October, skillfully choosing the type and variety.
The main advantages of this vegetable traditional for Russia are that it is the most cold-resistant crop grown in our gardens. Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of + 4.5 ° С, and an adult plant can withstand frosts down to -3 … - 4 ° С. To avoid failure in growing cabbage, regardless of the type, be it white cabbage, red cabbage, broccoli or cauliflower, you must comply with the basic conditions:
1. The best soils for cultivation are medium to heavy loams with neutral acidity (pH 6.5-7).
2. The location is sunny.
3. Compliance with crop rotation.
Keela is a typical and most harmful disease for all types of cabbage. To avoid it, it is necessary to lime the soil. On light soils (sandy loam and light loamy) add 200-400 g of lime per 1 m², on heavy - 400-600 g, bringing the pH of the medium to a neutral level (pH 7). It is necessary to return plants of this family to their original place no earlier than three years after the last planting. This measure does not allow pathogens to accumulate in the soil.
The best precursors for all types of cabbage are legumes, cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, carrots, and beets.
You can find characteristics of cabbage varieties in the book: Mamonov E. V. Varietal catalog of vegetable crops in Russia. M., 2003.
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The optimum temperature for the development of white cabbage seedlings is + 14 … + 16 ° С. For adult plants - + 18 … + 20 ° С. The best soils are medium to heavy loams, rich in humus. Organic fertilizers are usually applied in the fall (8-10 kg of manure per 1 m²). Mineral fertilizers can be applied in two stages: in the fall, superphosphate (40-50 g per 1 m²) and potassium sulfate (40-50 g per 1 m²) and in the spring - ammonium nitrate (40-50 g per 1 m²).
When planting seedlings, additional fertilization is possible directly into the hole (a handful of wood ash, one tablespoon of superphosphate and one tablespoon of potassium sulfate). Sowing seeds for seedlings depends on the variety: early - from 15 to 25 March; averages from 10 to 20 April; late April 5-15. Accordingly, planting of seedlings in open ground is carried out from 15 to 25 May; from 5 to 10 June and from 20 to 30 May. Seedling planting scheme: early varieties - 35x40 cm, 40x45 cm; medium - 50x60 cm and late - 70x70 cm.
Recommended varieties of white cabbage:
Rinda F1. Medium early grade. From planting seedlings to harvesting 95-110 days. Heads of cabbage are large, weighing 4-8 kg, rounded, with a dense and thin internal structure, white on the cut.
Golden hectare 1432. Medium early grade. From planting seedlings to harvesting 115-120 days. The head of cabbage is round, light green, medium density, weighing 1.6-3.3 kg. The taste is juicy, delicate. The disadvantage of the variety is that the heads of cabbage may crack when ripe.
Sibiryachka 60. Mid-season variety. From planting seedlings to harvesting 125-140 days. The head of cabbage is round-flat, dense, weighing 2-3 kg. The advantage of the variety is that the heads of cabbage do not crack when ripe.
Express F1. Ultra early ripening variety. From germination to technical ripeness 44-46 days. A head of cabbage of medium density, round, weighing 1.2-1.6 kg.
Gift. Medium late grade. From germination to technical ripeness 114-134 days. The head of cabbage is gray-green with a waxy coating, round, dense, juicy, weighing 3.5-4 kg. Advantages of the variety - resistant to cracking, stored for five months. Productivity - 10 kg / m².
Krautman F1. Mid-season variety. From germination to technical ripeness 130-135 days. Heads of cabbage are large, dense, even, medium-green in color, snow-white on the cut, juicy, crispy on the palate, weighing 3-4 kg.
Red cabbage is the closest relative of white cabbage, with a pronounced red-violet color of the leaves, with a denser head of cabbage and greater resistance to diseases and damage by pests.
Since red cabbage is smaller in diameter than white cabbage, the distance between plants when planting will be smaller: for early varieties - 35x40 cm; for medium - 50x50 cm; for the late ones - 50x60 cm.
Recommended varieties of red cabbage:
Early beauty. Early maturing variety. The rosette of leaves is small, up to 40 cm in diameter. Heads of cabbage are round, of medium density, red-violet in color, weighing 1-2 kg.
Topaz. Early maturing variety. From planting seedlings to harvesting 95-110 days. The rosette of leaves is half-raised. The leaf is medium-sized, transversely broadly elliptical, violet-green, with a waxy coating. The head of cabbage is half covered with a leaf, weighing 1.2-1.5 kg, round, dense, bright dark purple. The inner stump is short.
Mars. Mid-season variety. From planting seedlings to harvesting 105-110 days. Heads of cabbage are round-flat, dark purple, medium density, weighing 1.2 kg.
Cauliflower is the most thermophilic of all existing species, especially in need of warmth during the period from planting seedlings in open ground to the beginning of head formation. Feature - demanding on boron, the lack of which causes browning of the heads, which leads to a decrease in quality and a deterioration in appearance.
Recommended varieties of cauliflower:
Alrani. Early ripening variety. The rosette of leaves is vertical. The leaf is bluish-green, concave, medium to strong blistering, slightly waviness of the edge. The head is domed, medium-convex, medium-sized, white, very dense, partially covered with leaves, medium tuberosity, weighing 360-450 g.
Bianca. Medium early grade. Development time depends on the timing of disembarkation: March-April - 59-73 days; April-June - 53-66 days; June-July - 55-77 days. Medium power leaf socket. The head is covered with leaves, convex, very dense, white, weighing 500-700 g.
Fruernte. Early grade. The time from germination to ripening is 51-56 days. The head is dense, white, delicate.
Yarik F1. Mid-season variety. From planting thirty-day seedlings to harvesting 60-65 days. The color of the head is orange, weighing 300-500 g. Productivity - 2-2.5 kg / m².
White perfection NK F1. An early ripe hybrid. From planting seedlings to harvesting 70-75 days. The head is white, domed, strong, weighing up to 950 g. The inner leaves cover the head well.
Amethyst F1. Medium early grade. From planting seedlings to harvesting 70-80 days. The head is lilac-violet, dense, strong, weighing 700-1000 g.
Savoy cabbage is a cabbage that has tender, succulent leaves with bubbly blisters. Good as salad products, since the central veins of the leaf have a very soft texture. The disadvantage of this type is that in rainy weather, leaf rot is possible, which spoils the presentation.
Recommended varieties of savoy cabbage:
Twirl 1340. Medium late grade. Heads of cabbage are flat or flat-rounded, weighing 1.2-2.7 kg. The density is average. The color of the heads of cabbage in the section is yellow or yellow-green. The heads of cabbage are finely corrugated.
Ovass F1. Medium late hybrid.
Peking cabbage is good for greenhouses, but in the Northwest with a long day and low temperatures, it often turns into flowering, bypassing the head phase. To avoid this problem, this cabbage is grown through seedlings in spring or sown with seeds in the first half of summer.
The agricultural technique for growing broccoli is similar to growing cauliflower. To obtain early production, seedlings are planted in late April - early May according to the 25x35 cm scheme.For spring-summer use - in the second and third decades of May according to the 40x50 cm scheme.For summer-autumn use - in the first decade of July according to the 50x60 cm scheme.
Recommended varieties of broccoli:
Tone. Early maturing variety. From mass sprouting to technical ripeness 60-90 days. The mass of the central head is 120-150 g, and the lateral ones 15-20 g. The leaf is small, whole with a petiole, dark green in color with a bluish-bluish tinge. Medium wax coating. The edge of the leaf is slightly wavy.
Vitamin. Mid-season variety. From mass shoots to technical ripeness 72-90 days. Semi-horizontal rosette with a diameter of 40-58 cm. The leaves are lyre-shaped, long-petiolate, the edges are wavy dark green with a waxy coating. The height of the plant is 70-90 cm. The mass of the central head is 130-250 g. The productivity of one plant is 1-1.5 kg (with side shoots).
Ornamental cabbage refers to a form of kale. On personal plots, not vegetable and fodder varieties are most often grown, but decorative ones, since they can combine both.
Recommended varieties of ornamental cabbage:
Coral Queen F1. The plant forms a large rosette of highly corrugated leaves. The lower layer of rosette leaves is strongly dissected and resembles coral. The color of the middle of the rosette is lilac-pink. Plant height 60-70 cm. Rosette diameter 50 cm.
Peacock White F1. The plant forms a large rosette of highly corrugated leaves. The lower layer of rosette leaves is strongly dissected and resembles coral. The color of the middle of the rosette is white. Plant height 60-70 cm. Rosette diameter 50 cm.
Purple Pigeon F1. The plant forms a rosette of brightly colored, medium corrugated leaves of lilac-pink color. Plant height 25 cm. Rosette diameter 25 cm.
Victoria Pigeon F1. The plant forms a rosette of brightly colored medium corrugated leaves of white-pink color. Plant height 30 cm. Rosette diameter 20 cm.
Sunset F1. The plant is 40-60 cm high, erect. The rosette is 12-18 cm in diameter, the middle is lilac-pink. In floristry, a single shoot is most often used, removing green leaves along the trunk, leaving only the upper central rosette, imitating a rose. When pinching the central point of growth, it forms several rosettes on one trunk, resembling a bouquet.
Sunrise F1. The plant is 40-60 cm high, erect. Rosette with a diameter of 12-18 cm, the middle is white and pink. In floristry, a single shoot is most often used, removing green leaves along the trunk, leaving only the upper central rosette, imitating a rose. When pinching the central point of growth, it forms several rosettes on one trunk, resembling a bouquet.
Calais. The plant is 60-150 cm high, resembling a bush with a strongly corrugated dark-burgundy leaf. It is used not only for decorative purposes, but also for food.
Corporal. The plant is 60 cm high, resembling a squat bush with a strongly corrugated green leaf. The diameter of the rosette is 60 cm. It is used not only for decorative purposes, but also for food.
Peacock. Mixture of the Peacock mix group. The plant is 30 cm high, with a strongly dissected leaf up to the central vein. The middle of the rosette is white-pink or dark-crimson.
Based on our experience in the formation of beds, I want to offer readers several simple in execution, but interesting in composition, options for decorating a garden. So, for example, if you plant red cabbage (variety Mars) and plant it with kohlrabi (variety Vienna white 1350), then, after harvesting the kohlrabi crop, you can sow a salad with a green leaf in this place (variety Iceberg, Marta or Emerald Vase), shading its the color of the bluish-burgundy color of cabbage. The second option can be planting white cabbage (variety Golden hectare or late varieties) and planting its kohlrabi with a purple stem (Violetta or Vienna blue variety). Having harvested kohlrabi, you can sow a salad with a bronze leaf on this place (Lollo Rossa variety, Bronze vase, Lukomorye).
Other design options for cabbage beds can be represented by the presented diagrams.