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Video: Sowing Parsnip: Features Of Cultivation And Varieties
2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 11:24
Parsnip is a plant that has been forgotten after the appearance of potatoes
Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L.) is a biennial cultivated plant of the celery family (Apiaceae). Parsnip is one of the plants known to man for a long time. It got its name from the Latin - "food, food".
Parsnips are still found in the wild; it grows on vacant lots, open slopes, pastures, along roads throughout the European part of Russia, in the south of the Urals, in Western Siberia, Altai Territory, in the Caucasus, in Western Europe, and as an imported plant in America, Australia, and New Zealand. The parsnip differs from its wild relative, from which it was obtained by centuries of selection, by its thick and sweet root.
In culture, parsnip has been known for a long time, and before the appearance of potatoes, along with turnips, it was among the main food products in winter throughout the entire European continent. This plant was considered a delicious dish in ancient Rome, and was credited with medicinal properties. It was widespread in those days. Its fruits were found in pile buildings in Bern (Switzerland).
This plant was first described by Karl Linnaeus in 1753. They say that the parsnip at one time was very offended by … Christopher Columbus. With the advent of potatoes, this magnificent vegetable was gradually forgotten, but in vain! Now parsnips are cultivated in many countries, including Russia. We probably have it in XV ?? century and became known to Russian gourmets. In some regions of our country, parsnip is a common seasoning for many dishes, while in other regions it is not known at all. It is more widely known in the south, especially in the Caucasus.
The meaning of parsnips
Root vegetables have a sweetish taste and pleasant aroma. They contain the largest amount of dry matter among the plants of the Umbrella family (from 17 to 33%), in the leaves it is 13–18%. The sugar content is 8-9%. In terms of the content of easily digestible sugars (2.3-10.6%), parsnip is one of the first among root crops. The main constituent of carbohydrates in parsnip roots are sucrose, fructose, glucose. In addition, there are mannose, galactose, arabinose, xylose, rhamnose, as well as starch and fiber. Monosaccharides prevail in parsnip leaves, while sucrose prevails in root crops.
Protein content in root crops - 1.1–2.6%; in the leaves - 1.6–3.4%. There are pectin substances.
During a chemical study, it was found that all parts of the plant contain essential oil; most of all it is in dry fruits - 1.5-3.6%; in root vegetables - from 70 to 350 mg per 100 g of fresh weight. The essential oil contains esters of heptyl and hexyl acids and octyl butyl ester of butyric acid, which has a pleasant smell. The composition of the fatty oil found in the fruits includes glycerols of butyric, heptyl and caproic acids, as well as esters of acetic acid.
Uronic acids are present in root crops. Of the oxidative enzymes, parsnips have peroxidase, phenolase and ascorbate oxidase. Furocoumarins are found in parsnip seeds, which makes them a valuable raw material for the manufacture of medicines.
Parsnips are a rich source of vitamins. Its roots contain: vitamin C (5-28 mg per 100 g), as well as vitamins: B 1 (1.2-1.9 mg per 100 g), B 2 (0.01-0.1 mg per 100 d), PP, carotene (0.03 mg per 100 g). The presence of vitamins in the leaves is tens, even hundreds of times more and amounts to: vitamin C 20–109 mg per 100 g; carotene 2.4–12.2 mg per 100 g; vitamin B 1 - 1.14 mg per 100 g and vitamin B 2 - 0.91 mg per 100 g. Dehydroascorbic acid was found in the juice of root crops.
The content of ash elements in parsnip roots is 0.7–1.5%, in leaves 2.3–3%. Potassium prevails in the composition of minerals in parsnip ash; there are also mineral salts of calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper, etc.
Parsnip preparations have antispasmodic, diuretic, analgesic and photosensitizing effects, stimulate appetite.
Parsnip is a valuable forage crop for animals and poultry. This herb significantly improves the quality of milk and butter. Parsnip is a good honey plant.
Developmental biology and attitudes towards environmental conditions
Parsnips are propagated by seeds. Its root system penetrates to a depth of 2–2.5 m and a width of 1–1.5 m. In the first year of life, a small root crop is formed, in the second year of life - a stem, inflorescence and seeds. The root vegetable is spherical or elongated with an uneven surface, rough consistency, yellowish-brown outside, the flesh of the root vegetable is grayish-white. Basal leaves - long-petiolate, pinnately dissected, shiny from above, from below - soft-wavy, oblong-ovoid, obtuse, sparsely toothed along the edges; stem - sessile. The stem is straight, glabrous, ribbed-furrowed, branched at the top, 80–120 cm high. The inflorescence is a complex umbel with a large number of small yellow flowers. Parsnips are pollinated crosswise with the help of insects. The fruit is a two-seed, which, when ripe, splits into two lobes of a flat-oval shape,light brown or light brown in color. The mass of 1000 seeds is 2–5 g. The seeds remain viable for no more than 2–3 years.
Among other root crops, it is considered the most cold-resistant and frost-resistant plant. Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of + 5 … + 6 ° C. Seedlings appear on the 15-20th day and tolerate frosts down to -3 … -5 ° С. Adult plants can withstand temperatures down to -7 … -8 ° C. The best growth of parsnips is observed at a temperature of + 15 … + 20 ° С. In conditions of sufficient moisture, they grow well at higher temperatures. The parsnip plant overwinters well in the middle lane in the soil, both in the form of fully formed root crops of spring sowing, and younger ones, and in the spring they are dug up for fresh use. Parsnip tops are not preserved after wintering. It grows young leaves.
Parsnip is a light-loving plant. It makes a particularly great demand for light at the beginning of its development. Parsnips sharply reduce the yield when the weeding is late. This is a long day plant.
Parsnip is a plant that requires moisture in the soil. For swelling, water is needed 1.6-2.2 times more than the weight of air-dried seeds. The powerful root system of parsnips allows it to utilize moisture from the lower soil layers and better resist soil drought. However, parsnips give high yields with sufficient soil moisture and uniform soil moisture throughout the growing season. The plant does not tolerate excessive soil moisture and the proximity of groundwater.
Soil nutrition requirements
Parsnips grow on soils of various textures, but best of all - on loamy and sandy loam, as well as on peat bogs. It should not be sown on too light or too heavy soils. For successful cultivation, loose, structural, moist, but not waterlogged soils with a deep humus horizon are required. The optimum pH for parsnips is 6–8. Soils with high acidity are unsuitable for it, as they inhibit plant growth.
Parsnips are responsive to the application of organic and mineral fertilizers. For dining purposes, it uses root crops, which must be of good quality, therefore, it should be sown no earlier than in the second year after the introduction of fresh manure.
The use of trace elements (boron and manganese) causes him to intensify biochemical processes in plants. They contribute to an increase in the weight of parsnip leaves and by 40% - the average weight of root crops, and also increase the content of dry matter, sugars, ascorbic acid and carotene in them.
Parsnips should be placed next to crops that leave behind a weed-free area. Parsnips are grown after vegetable crops, with the exception of representatives of the Celery family. The best predecessors for him are potatoes, cabbage, cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkin, under which organic fertilizers were applied.
Soil cultivation begins with the autumn digging to a depth of 25–30 cm, since with finer cultivation the roots branch. In the spring they harrow the soil and loosen it deeply.
It is useful to add peat compost or humus from organic fertilizers for parsnips at the rate of 4–5 kg per 1 m2. Mineral fertilizers are applied at the rate of 15–20 g of ammonium nitrate, 20–25 g of potassium chloride and 30–40 g of superphosphate per square meter, and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers in the amount of 2/3 of the required rate are applied during the autumn soil filling. Nitrogen and the rest of the phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied in the spring for deep loosening. When using combined mineral fertilizers (30-50 g per 1 m?), Filling the soil with nutrients is transferred to spring.
The following varieties of parsnip are zoned: Round and Serdechko - early ripening, with a conical-knotted root crop, a grayish-white outer color and white pulp; cultivars Best of All and White Stork - with long, conical roots, more cold-resistant and containing more dry matter. Varieties with a rounded root crop are less productive than those with a conical one, but they are more early ripening and suitable for growing on soils with a small arable layer, since the length of the root crop is 10-15 cm on average.
Seed preparation and sowing
Parsnip seeds, although larger than carrots and parsley, also sprout slowly. To accelerate germination during the spring sowing period, they are soaked in warm water for 2-3 days. The water is changed several times. You can hang the seeds in a bag from a water tap and use a weak stream of warm (but not hot!) Water. Essential oils that inhibit germination are washed out faster. Before sowing, the seeds are dried to a state of flowability. In the conditions of a home garden, they can not be dried, but sown wet, after mixing with dry sand or soil. When sowing with wet seeds, make sure that the soil is sufficiently moist. Water it if necessary. Otherwise, dry soil will take away moisture from the seeds, and they may die. The ending follows